Boosting logistics performance in India

India now has a National Logistics Policy (NLP). It was launched by Hon’ble Prime Minister Sh. Narendra Modi on 17th September 2022 with a vision to develop a technologically enabled, integrated, cost-efficient, resilient, sustainable and trusted logistics ecosystem in the country for accelerated and inclusive growth. This is big news since India is the world’s fifth biggest economy, yet has a logistic performance far below many regional and global peers. 

A significant step for India’s development

Speaking on the occasion, the Prime Minister called the launch of the NLP a significant step in fulfilling the ‘Pran’ (meaning breath in hindi) of India being a developed country. The resulting improvement in coordination will lead to the desired speed in the sector.  

To ensure quick last mile delivery, end transport-related challenges, save time and money of the manufacturers, prevent wastage of the agro-products, concerted efforts were made and one of the manifestations of those efforts is today’s National Logistics Policy.

– Hon’ble Prime Minister Sh. Narendra Modi

Keeping the competitiveness in mind 

The need for a policy was felt since the logistics cost in India is high as compared to other developed economies. It is imperative to reduce the logistics cost in India for improving the competitiveness of Indian goods both in domestic as well as export markets. Reduced logistics cost improves efficiency cutting across various sectors of the economy, encouraging value addition and enterprise. The Prime Minister also claimed that this policy will bring down the logistics cost of businesses from 13-14 per cent to around 8 per cent making India at par with countries like Germany and Japan. 

The NLP will be implemented through a Comprehensive Logistics Action Plan which includes action areas such as integrated digital logistics systems, human resource development and capacity building, National support for action by cities and states, efficiency, or multimodal logistics parks. In addition, the NLP’s implementation will be supported trough the Unified Logistics Interface Platform which combines the data systems on transport and logistics activities by multiple government agencies. The platform will allow to monitor the NLP’s progress and to take well-informed decisions for more efficient and sustainable logistics.

Further information on the NLP and the related initiatives is described in this booklet 2022_NLP India booklet.

Positive impact of sector’s carbon footprint expected

The ‘Climate Friendly Freight Transport in India (Green Freight) project ‘ under the Indo-German development cooperation that Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH implements on behalf German government’s International Climate Initiative has been working closely with the project partner – The Logistics Division, Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT), Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India in the NLP’s preparation and launch. The policy doesn’t refer explicitly to climate protection, yet many of the planned actions are expected to have a positive impact on the sector’s carbon footprint.  

The NLP and associated plans have been in the works for around three years and GIZ’s Green Freight project has and will continue to contribute significantly to

  1. the e-handbook on warehousing standards
  2. develop logistics plans at city level
  3. prepare an overarching logistics human resource strategy
  4. share knowledge on international best practices for planning and developing an efficient, well connected and reliable multimodal transport and logistics networks in the country and
  5. develop an institutional platform to regularly engage German and Indian companies in the logistics sector to flag issues and collaboratively devise solutions with the partner ministry. 

The Government of India has formulated a clear and ambitious policy agenda for logistic system development. The NLP boosts the profile of logistics as political issue in India, and it will be the key reference for GIZ India’s ongoing support towards environmental sustainability in the freight transport sector.

Strengthening conditions for the implementation of electromobility in Chile

Ambitious targets to transform transport

In its NDC, Chile set targets of a 30% reduction in emissions by 2030 and carbon neutrality by 2050. With a 214.5% growth in GHG emissions since 1990, transport is a key sector to achieve the country’s medium and long-term goals.

Within the transport sector, electromobility has become a fundamental pillar for the reduction of emissions and an opportunity to improve the public transport in the country.

The National Electromobility Strategy of Chile has defined an ambitious roadmap for developing this technology, projecting a reduction of around 20% of the country’s energy consumption emissions with its implementation.

Among the defined targets is the electrification of 100% of urban public transport of buses, taxis and colectivos (fixed-route taxis) by 2040. The work to achieve this ambitious goal has already begun  in the capital Santiago, one of the region’s hubs, with the second largest fleet after Bogotá.

But expanding to smaller cities  poses significant challenges.

 A pilot project for the strengthening of electromobility

Moving Chile, in cooperation with the Ministries of Transport and Telecommunications and the Ministry of Energy and Environment is developing a pilot project to support the deployment and development of electric mobility in public transport in cities outside Santiago in Chile. The pilot is being implemented by the Chilean Energy Sustainability Agency (ASE in Spanish), as a catalyser to two relevant Government initiatives, Mi Taxi Electrico and  RED Regiones, through two working lines:

The first one seeks to increase the deployment of fast charging networks in at least 10 cities of Chile and accelerate the adoption of electric light public transport in intermediate cities, contributing to creating the first electromobility ecosystems in regional capitals outside Santiago. The focus relies mainly on taxi and colectivos (fixed-route taxis), a key actor for the public transport system in the country’s smaller cities.

Cities where chargers will be deployed


The second line aims to strengthen capacities on electromobility of current public transport operators in intermediate cities. To this end, a training programme will be deployed, including educational material, classes, technical visits and a help desk support. This programme is expected to improve the competitiveness of smaller operators, thus contributing to their integration to the electromobility ecosystem.

The lessons learned with this pilot project will be collected, systematised and disseminated to amplify the impacts and bring effective solutions for the growth of electromobility both in Chile and in the Latin American region.




Cycling against all odds in Costa Rica

This article is part of our #StoriesofChange where we profile the work of our partner countries in developing climate actions in transport. Read more #StoriesOfChange and follow the Hashtag on Twitter.

With a good idea, enough capacities and a suitable plan, what could possibly go wrong? As the pilot project on the “Promotion and development of urban cycling in Montes de Oca and Curridabat” proved, there is a multitude of obstacles to overcome in order to successfully improve the conditions for urban cycling. In two municipalities of Costa Rica’s capital, an example of how to keep focused, flexible and determined was set that opened pathways to further contributions to the mobility transition.  

The context of the project seemed hands-on and pragmatic: two municipalities are interested in establishing cycling a safe, healthy, efficient and accessible means of transport in their jurisdictions. There is more to it: they even teamed up across institutional barriers to seek financial and technical support from the Euroclima+ programme. With a straightforward plan to improve cycling capacities of current and potential future cyclists and the construction of a network of bicycle paths that would connect the two municipalities, the tone was set for a successful pilot project with the support of Euroclima+.  

Kicking off in August 2018 the project was innovative from the very beginning. Participatory planning processes, data gathering, educational measures and complementing studies would constitute the panorama of project activities. The plan was to let this lead to the construction of bicycle paths that would directly respond to the communities needs’ and demands.  

In January 2022, the project ended and many of the activities were carried out differently than foreseen, encompassing new elements, ditching others and replacing yet others. To find out how this project turned out to be different than planned and still very successful, this article will revisit several of the challenges that the project overcame.  

First of all, why should we even bother with cycling in a car-centered country such as Costa Rica? Local authorities in Costa Rica just like in many other Latin American countries find themselves in a context where nationally determined contributions already include targets on the transport sector, but the local level has yet to develop its individual strategies to the mobility transition. On country level, the transport sector is responsible for 54% of the greenhouse gas emissions, which policy makers are determined to change according to their NDC and Long Term Strategy. Against this backdrop and considering the limited scope of action that municipalities have, cycling is in an important opportunity to route the transition towards more sustainable modes of transportation. Apart from contributing to climate change mitigation efforts, improving conditions for active mobility furthermore does its share for public health and wellbeing, facing inequalities and enhancing air quality in the city. If this is not convincing enough, the project also helped to build alliances and synergies between different institutions, fostering coordination and cooperation, and strengthening the working relations between the involved parties.           

Most importantly, this team of committed individuals in different institutions who on the one hand are convinced about cycling and on the other hand, willing to tear down the barriers between their respective institutions. This is how a project team could be formed with members from two different municipalities, both embedded in a metropolis, with support from the Ministry of Public Works and Transport of Costa Rica. This team persisted despite administrative changes, methodological setbacks, and the delays caused by the pandemic. 

Tropicalizing established methodologies 

In the beginning, it was foreseen to use the Dutch CROW methodology, made by an organization which reunites the Dutch government and businesses to provide guidance on the design, construction, and management of road infrastructure and more specifically, of bicycle infrastructure. Drawn from and enriched by the experiences in the Netherlands, the methodology would prioritize track segments that permit direct and fast connections with a higher level of commercial activities, low slope, and illumination. While this would have led to a large cycling network with relatively low cost, it did not factor in how the social condition of the different populational groups would be affected by the new infrastructure. The characteristics of the neighbourhoods and local planning policies were two other aspects that could not be covered by the CROW methodology.  

Therefore, the authorities decided to adapt and tropicalize the methodology in order to account for the specific needs of the vicinities and populations, for example enabling travel by bicycle between the areas of Miravalles and Lomas de Ayarco, which is a common commute of many domestic employees and gardeners.  

The tropicalization of the methodology represents an important learning journey and highlights the importance of questioning established methodologies and knowledges to assess whether they are suitable for the local context. In the case of CROW, there were mainly questions of inequalities that could not be integrated and therefore, required an adaption enriched by information gathered in group workshops. Although the application of the methodology “went wrong”, it actually enabled a process of reflection and improvement instead of following the textbook, making the final infrastructure more adequate for the need of the population.  

Collecting and using adequate data  

Data is key to many projects. Therefore, the project initially foresaw the documentation of daily trips by workshop participants in an early stage of the project in 2018. They were asked to register their trips on the free app Strava and to take photos of the improvable road conditions they would encounter. Again, the plans had to change as only 20 trips were recorded on Strava, leaving the project team with a very limited database.  

Further information on frequently used routes and reasons for this preference, as well as conflict zones and suggestions for improvement could be gathered in group workshops and bilateral talks in Montes de Oca.  

In search of complementary quantitative data, Strava was contacted to gain access to the Strava Metro platform which collects aggregated user data on active mobility usage based. In the form of heat maps, the data of 100 trips made in Montes de Oca could be used to enrich the planning process. Additionally, site visits were another important component of the data collection to review the conditions of the infrastructure.

With these different sources of data, the data collection was on more solid feet and left the understanding why data collection is so important for designing cycling infrastructure. Again, data collection was hampered by the changed mobility patterns during the pandemic and had to be carried out differently than planned, but the need to gather further data to improve the constructions in the future became evident. The experience with different types of data planted the seeds for further enhanced, data-based monitoring of the infrastructure through cyclist counts and sensors.  

Communication is key to communities  

Another challenge the project faces was backlash from local communities. In a context where the road space is usually understood as destined for motorized vehicles, redistributing public space is likely to rise local discontent. Although workshops with local communities were carried out, neighbours complained and institutions were reluctant to support the project. The solution the project team found to this issue was to enhance communication. Therefore, a broad campaign was set up by local consultants to educate the population of the two municipalities about the use and benefits of the cycling paths taking into account all street space users. Due to an electoral communication ban, communication could not be carried out as originally designed. However, an opening event of the first 4 km in Montes de Oca could be realized, 18 press articles covered the story in a first phase and 6 additional articles were published in a second phase. Visually appealing material on the bicycle paths and urban cycling was created and distributed, both in the articles and in flyers to be distributed in the neighborhoods to respond to the negative reactions. Maps representing the new lanes were an important tool to present the results in terms of newly gained access to infrastructure, while virtual educational workshops on urban cycling to get in touch with the communities.  

A video that presented the results of the project was another emblematic communicational activity that helped to showcase the success of the project. 

Once again, the communication activities had to be flexibly adapted to respond to the changing circumstances. However, the resources developed and the capacities installed during the project will serve as a base for further campaigns that could foster cultural change towards active mobility.  

What’s next?  

Learning as a team, cooperating, and coordinating has been crucial for the success of this project. It shows that change on a local scale can be reached with limited resources and capacities.  After all, with the main aim to position the bicycle as a convenient, safe and efficient means of transport, the project was an innovative approach across institutional, municipal and team boundaries.  

In the future, the existing infrastructure and usage will need to be monitored. As future opportunities for infrastructure improvements were foreseen in the project design, this remains a challenge in the hand of the project team. Maintaining the construction and improving it under the same conditions of cross-institutional collaboration will require additional effort. However, the involved parties count on their knowledge and experiences gained during the project and can continue to flexibly react to any challenges that they confront.  

SERIES: Managing Waste

Monthly series on e-mobility by GIZ India

Part of the e-mobility team of GIZ India is currently publishing a monthly series of 12 articles in RenewableWatch magazine. The article series is related to various aspects of grid integration of EVs in India and is dealing with various ongoing studies as a part of NDC-TIA India.

Discover our articles!

In order to get access you are asked to sign up to the RenewableWatch magazine newsletter when clicking the link.

8. Never Refuse to Reuse – Second life of electric vehicle batteries

Authors: Bhagyasree (Junior Energy Advisor, NDC TIA – India Component)

Date of publication: July 18, 2022

This eighth article of the series focuses on technical strategies adopted on the batteries to estimate its health after the first life and the retrofitting required on the batteries before being redeployed for a secondary application.

Read here.

7. Managing Waste – Battery recycling in the Indian scenario

Authors: Toni Zhimomi, Junior Technical Expert, NDC TIA – India Component, GIZ India ; Sushovan Bej, Technical Expert, NDC Transport Initiative for Asia (NDC TIA) – India Component, GIZ India

Date of publication: June 9, 2022

This seventh article of the series focuses on waste management, particularly different battery recycling systems such as organised and unorganised industry operations in the Indian context, and offers recommendations for more effecitve battery recycling guidelines.

Read here

Source: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GIZ), 2022

6. Powering Up – Understanding traction batteries: technology and standards

Authors: Bhagyasree, Junior Technical Expert, NDC TIA – India Component, GIZ India; Sushovan Bej, Technical Expert, NDC Transport Initiative for Asia (NDC TIA) – India Component, GIZ India

Date of publication: April 27, 2022

This sixth article of the series focuses on battery related technology and standards such as key characteristics and chemistires of batteires as well as standards which could be adopted by key players in the ecosystem.

Read here

Source: (PushEVs), (InsideEVs), (Battery University-Comparison Table of Secondary Batteries), (Logan Goldie-Scot)

5. Intelligent Approach – Smart charging strategies for electric vehicles

Authors: Shweta Kalia, Junior Technical Expert, NDC Transport Initiative for Asia (NDC TIA)- India Component, GIZ India; Bhagyasree, Junior Technical Expert, NDC TIA – India Component, GIZ India & Dr Indradip Mitra, Team Leader, E-Mobility, Indo-German Energy Programme, and Country Coordinator for NDC Transport Initiative for Asia (NDC TIA)- India Component, GIZ India

Date of publication: March 31, 2022

This fifth article of the series discusses the selection and classification of smart charging strategies for electric vehicles to be best suited for the needs of key stakeholders.

Read here

Source: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), 2021

4. Charging ForwardRole of smart charging in the EV ecosystem

Authors: Shweta Kalia, Junior Technical Expert, NDC Transport Initiative for Asia (NDC TIA)- India Component, GIZ India; Toni Zhimomi, Junior Technical Expert, NDC TIA – India Component, GIZ India & Dr Indradip Mitra, Team Leader, E-Mobility, Indo-German Energy Programme, and Country Coordinator for NDC Transport Initiative for Asia (NDC TIA)- India Component, GIZ India

Date of publication: February 23, 2022

The fourth article of the series discusses the role of smart charging in the EV ecosystem.

Read here

Source: IRENA (2019), Innovation outlook: Smart charging for electric vehicles

3. Information is Wealth

Author: Sahana L, Junior Technical Expert, NDC-TIA India Component, GIZ

Date of publication: January 24, 2022

This article deals with the implementation of communication protocols in the Indian EV ecosystem.

Read here

Source: IIT Bombay and GIZ India – Report 1 – ‘Fundamentals of Electric Vehicle Charging Technology and its Grid Integration’


2. Crucial Communication – Need for communication protocols for electric mobility ecosystem

Author: Sahana L, Junior Technical Expert, NDC-TIA India Component, GIZ

Date of publication: January 6, 2022

This article encapsulates the functions and roles of EV related communication protocols and the status quo on communication protocols applicable in India.

Read here

Source: Elaadnl (2017) – EV Related Protocol Study


1. Two Good – Need for energy and transport sector coupling

Authors: Sahana L, Junior Technical Expert, NDC-TIA India Component, GIZ & Dr. Indradip Mitra, Team Leader, E-Mobility, Indo-German Energy Programme, and Country Coordinator for NDC-TIA India Component, GIZ India

Date of publication: December 9, 2021

The first article of the series stresses the need for stronger sector coupling between the energy and transport subsectors, making e-mobility a central element in the necessary green transition of the economy.

Read here

Source: IIT Bombay, 2021

Lessons Learned on Increasing Transport Mitigation Ambition in China

In China, the NDC Transport Initiative for Asia (NDC-TIA) are working with seven partner organisations to support the development of a national transport GHG and air pollutants “double peaking” strategy. In a new series, NDC-TIA partners offer insights into lessons learned through the country components in India, China and Vietnam. The first blog identifies four lessons learned on effective collaboration to advance China’s NDCs and raise ambition for transport decarbonisation. In summary:  

1. Understand and engage the right stakeholders 

The NDC-TIA connects public- and private-sector stakeholders through cross-agency multistakeholder platforms. The government ministriesvarying objectives can be challenging, so it is crucial to identify ministry needs, motivations and constraints, to tailor offerings, add value to each stakeholder, and develop frameworks that best align with China’s NDCs. 

2. Transport decarbonization requires a systemic approach 

While China’s 1+N policy system aligns with its NDCs, there are barriers in integrating transport decarbonization goals with other sectors and at the local level. The key to meeting climate goals is to gain decarbonization buy-in across local governments, through long-term engagement, to establish policies that match regional needs. The NDC-TIA’s Council Reportalso reflects the need to coordinate with the energy sector to meet China’s 2030 and 2060 goals.  

3. Look for underlying data gaps 

Through various strategies, including analysis support, identifying capacity gaps, and coordination across ministries, the NDC-TIA has focused on resolving the lack of baseline data on decarbonization pathways to achieve China’s enhanced ambition in decarbonizing transport. This is critical both to bridging the gap between national and provincial policy design, and establishing an emission baseline. 

4. Equitable transport access requires integrated planning 

While China’s14th Five-Year Plan (2021-2025) prioritizes zero-emission passenger and freight transport, focusing on individual vehicles does not address income and access variability. Improving transport equity, such as providing more efficient, accessible and safe mobility options, will remain a priority in coming years.  

Read more details about our various insights from and activities within Ministries and Provinces in China here. 

This blog was originally published on TheCityFix on July 28, 2022, written by Maggie Dennis, WRI, and Yiqian Zhang, WRI, with inputs from Lulu Xue, Hui He, Sebastian Ibold, Urda Eichhorst, and Angel Cortez. 

Viet Nam accelerates plans to phase out fossil fuel vehicles by 2050

On the 22nd of July 2022, Deputy Prime Minister Le Van Thanh signed an approval of Viet Nam’s action plan on green energy transformation, under Decision No. 876/QD-TTg. This approval is a significant part of the Government’s efforts to realise its commitments at COP26, where Prime Minister Pham Minh Chinh pledged that Viet Nam would strive to achieve net-zero emissions by 2050. A key element of this action plan is thus to reduce carbon and methane emissions in the transport sector.

Accordingly, the overall objective of the strategy is to develop a green transport system that contributes to the goal of net zero emissions by 2050. In particular, the decision outlines a specific target by 2050, in which 100% of road transport, including public transport vehicles, should be electric or use green energy, and proper charging infrastructures that provide green energy should be established nationwide.

Furthermore, the transformation roadmap of urban traffic includes the following targets:

  • By 2025, 100% of buses will use electricity and green energy.
  • By 2030, the percentage of vehicles using electricity and green energy will reach at least 50%, and 100% of taxis will use electricity and green energy.
  • By 2040, the production, assembly, and import of automobiles and motorcycles using fossil fuels will be discontinued.
  • By 2050, the country will have a complete green transport network with net-zero greenhouse gas emissions.

The NDC Transport Initiative for Asia (NDC-TIA) Viet Nam component has supported the Ministry of Transport to develop the Action Plan on green energy transformation, by strengthening the national legal framework and contributing their expertise to the implementation. Additionally, the project assists the Ministry in creating the national e-mobility roadmap, as well as developing economic and technical guidelines for e-buses, across Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh city, and the national framework. This will lay the groundwork for the deployment of electric vehicles beyond the pilot phase to support Viet Nam in fulfilling its commitments under the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and the goal of reducing methane emissions.


NDC-TIA is part of the International Climate Initiative (IKI). The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) support this initiative on the basis of a decision adopted by the German Bundestag. It supports China, India, and Viet Nam as well as regional and global decarbonisation strategies to increase the ambition around low-carbon transport. In Viet Nam, the project’s implementing organisation is GIZ and partner institutions include World Resources Institute (WRI) and International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT). Viet Nam Ministry of Transport (MOT) is the Lead executive organisation and the Department of Environment (DOE) is the project owner. For more information on the project, please visit NDC Transport Initiative for Asia.

LAUNCH: GIZ’s Report-3 on EV Charging Infrastructure and its Grid Integration

GIZ along with IIT Bombay is organizing the e-launch of the third report “Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure and its Grid Integration in India: Status Quo, Critical Analysis and Way Forward” developed under the study “Integration of Electric Vehicles Charging Infrastructure with Distribution Grid: Global Review, India’s Gap Analyses and Way Forward”. A consortium led by IIT Bombay along with Florence School of Regulation (FSR), Technical University Denmark (DTU), Cardiff University and Universidad Pontificia Comillas has undertaken this study. This study has been carried out under the purview of GIZ’s Nationally Determined Contribution-Transport Initiative for Asia (NDC-TIA) project, in close collaboration and under the guidance of NITI Aayog.

This specific report, the third  in the series of four reports of this study is focused on a detailed analysis and documentation of EV charging infrastructure and its grid integration in Indian EV ecosystem covering the current status analysis of various aspects including EV charging technology, standards and protocols applicable in India, grid integration status of EVs, stakeholders in Indian EV ecosystem, policy and regulatory matters related to EV charging infrastructure (both at central and state level). Moreover, gap analysis in EV charging infrastructure and its grid integration in Indian EV ecosystem is also presented in this report.

Event start and end times (in IST format): 16.15 hr  – 17.15 hr IST

    Link to event: Click here to join the Event (more…)

TUTORIAL: How to apply the LEAP software in the transport sector


This tutorial provides guidance on how to use the Low Emissions Analysis Platform (LEAP) to create a model of projected GHG emissions in the transport sector.

This includes an overview of GHG emission projections, an introduction to the LEAP software and an exercise to develop a basic transport model in LEAP including developing an account of historic emissions, a baseline scenario and mitigation scenarios to reflect two emissions reduction measures.

The accompanying exercise manual can be found here. Please click here to access the presentation shown in the video.



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LEAP, the Low Emissions Analysis Platform, is a widely-used software tool that is mostly used for energy policy analysis and climate change mitigation assessment developed at the Stockholm Environment Institute. The training video and the presentation explain how to use it in the transport sector.

This training video is NOT an official training video for LEAP and is not associated with the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) in any way. The training video and manual were developed independently by Ricardo Energy and Environment with support from the GIZ project Advancing Transport Climate Strategies in Rapidly Motorising Countries (TraCS), financed by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Nuclear Safety and Consumer Protection’s International Climate Initiative (IKI).


More women at Transmilenio’s wheel. Why is it so important?

Out of every 100 articulated and SITP bus driver in Bogota, Colombia, only one is a woman.

Daisy Leonor Jaime’s driver’s license certifies her as a brave woman. She has been driving buses since she was 16 years old, and today, at 48, she has completed 9 years as a driver in Bogotá’s public transportation system.

“My job is as bus operator. I started working as a Bus driver. Since then, I have moved up to Buseton, Padron, and now, to “Alimentador” (these are the different bus types operating in Bogota’s public transportation system)“. Says Daisy, one of the 12 drivers working on the recently launched M-route run by the firm SUMA in Bogota’s Tunjuelito district, which is operated exclusively by women.

With her work as a driver, she raised her two children and gave them what she lacked: education up to the university. “I learned to drive in Bogotá’s hills. Nowadays, it is more normal to see a woman driving a bus, (but) when I was 16, everyone looked at me in amazement, especially because I learned on those old buses. It was complicated, but I liked it,” she says.

Today, women can be found at the wheel of Bogota’s Public Transportation System’s Buses and TransMilenio’s articulated and bi-articulated buses. However, the reality is that there are only a few of them. According to TransMilenio figures, out of the 23,965 drivers in the system, only 328 are women: 1.4%.

As Daisy, Betany Moreno is also part of this small group. Betany, a 26 years old single mother, also took on the challenge of being in charge of a bus. “At 17, I started driving a small truck. My actual job was as a warehouse assistant, but I also helped with deliveries. I’ve worked on many things; I even sold sausages on the street. I have had many jobs. But SUMA allowed me to enter with the driver’s license I had. I hope to be here for a long time”, Betany says.

Two stories

Daisy Leonor Jaime Silva, 48 years old “Before working with operators, I worked in traditional (non formalised) transportation: I started when I was 16. So, I have a lot of experience. I joined the SUMA nine years ago. I passed the tests and requirements made by the company, so here I am. I am no longer afraid of driving or anything like that because, thanks to God, I have a lot of experience. My family is very supportive and tells me, “You are a warrior. Go ahead”. The users? They have received us very well. When girls and boys look at us, say, “oh! a woman, we are safer, we are confident,” and congratulate us”.”

One of the drivers of Route M.
Photo: Mauricio Moreno | EL TIEMPO

Betany Moreno, 26 years old, “I entered the system because my father worked as a driver: he was an operator in another company. I was very impressed to see his schedule and flexibility. That is why I was motivated to apply for that company. I joined the company about a year ago and started in minibuses, a smaller type of bus. I moved on and I am currently on the standard bus. At the moment, my schedule is in the morning. I start at 3:00 – 3:30 a.m., depending on the schedule, we get 8 hours, or sometimes we get periods of 5 or 6 hours. I have a little girl, and it has been hard for us because we live alone, but I have time to spend with her, take her to school, and pick her up. It has been great to share time with her. My family has always been there for me. They tell me that I am fearless and a warrior. I have never had any problem with the users (as them being rude to me or something like that). On the contrary, they always tell me how cool it is to see such a young woman doing this”.

Why does it matter?

For a woman to have the right to work as a driver in a public transport system is not a ‘whim’, it is a life-changing opportunity. According to the study ‘Inclusion of women in driving tasks in Santiago’s public transport system’, carried out by the Transport Gender Lab of Santiago (Chile), the incorporation of women in bus companies of Trasantiago (Red Metropolitana de Movilidad) has had a substantial impact on their economic autonomy.

The vast majority of female drivers indicated in the interviews and focus groups that their economic situation has improved considerably. They are able to pay debts, save and access goods previously unaffordable, such as buying a car or a house, going on vacation, sending their children to a better school or giving them what they need in material terms”, says the study. It also highlights that driving can be a formal employment option for this population with poor employment and salary conditions: in Bogota, while unemployment among men is 14.1%, for women is 17.%.

The interviewed female drivers consider that they have been brave and have broken barriers and prejudices (…) which generates a high sense of pride for them.

Transport Gender Lab

But why is it so difficult to see women behind the wheel? And, why do women like Daisy and Betany make up a mere 1.4%? Marina Moscoso, technical director at DESPACIO, gender and mobility expert, and co-author of the study “Women in Bogotá’s Transport: the result”, identifies four types of barriers: individual, environmental, access and permanence, and organisational.

Driver of Bogota’s public transportation system
Photo by Epigrama for GIZ Transport Group – Colombia

Hiring more women is not the only solution; we must change the predominantly male culture.

Women in transportation in Bogotá

“From our upbringing, we have gender stereotypes that affect how we project ourselves and what we want to do. There are values associated with what we know as “The sexual division of labour,” where we believe there are men’s and women’s jobs. These notions are reinforced at school and in the family. For example, if the father goes to fix the car on Saturday, he takes the boy, not the girl. These are individual and social barriers”. She adds that these barriers, in turn, feed the access barriers: that is, they do not allow a woman to have the training to access this type of work.

“For example, to drive a TransMilenio biarticulated bus, you need a specific type of licence for larger vehicles, and most women do not have it,” says Moscoso, noting that even when women who meet the requirements encounter organisational barriers: there are no inclusive or permanent vacancies, the work environments are not safe, there are dynamics of harassment, or the schedules do not adjust to the care roles that fall on women.

For that reason, cases like Daisy and Betany’s are 1 out of 100 in Bogota

However, according to TransMilenio, there are strategies to assess the barriers. The company said that employment fairs are organised to support local concessionaires in recruiting staff. Also, a Seeding Plan is “one of the mechanisms to facilitate women’s access to the system’s job offers”.

Operators are required to have a primary school degree, a C1, C2 and C3 type license and at least one year of certified experience in cargo vehicles of at least 1.5 tons or passenger transport vehicles. The Seeding Plan provides driving training and makes the requirements more flexible. They require only a C1 type license, one year of certified experience as a vehicle driver and a primary school certificate.

In addition to these strategies, Chile has implemented state-funded scholarships and an annual award for the best female driver, increasing the number of women drivers in public transport from 100 in 2013 to more than 1,000 by 2022. This share is expected to grow thanks to new policies requiring a quota of female participation in transport companies’ operations.

Paola Tapia, former Chile’s Minister of Transport and current director of Santiago’s Metropolitan Transport Board, says that this benefits everyone: “To begin, women’s performance is better than men’s because they help reduce traffic accidents, generate more harmonious working environments and procure friendlier attention, which passengers appreciate. In addition, they develop self-esteem, as shown in a study produced by the Inter-American Development Bank in 2018, underlining that in the Chilean system, women value the job stability, career, income, and the independence that this activity brings”.

Yet, for Moscoso, it is crucial to remark: “Although there may be arguments to say women are better drivers, the main point (to recruit them as such) is that women also have the right to work in these sectors and access better economic opportunities. Otherwise, we are at risk of creating stereotypes”.

A great opportunity

Little is known that the arrival of 1485 new electric buses to Bogotá -1061 of which are already running- together with the national policies to promote public transport electrification, will, over a five-year horizon, generate a nationwide demand for 934 technicians and 10,653 trained drivers for electric vehicles. If the conditions are created, many of these jobs could be for women. This is the conclusion of the study: Diagnosis of capacities for designing a human talent training program for promoting mass transportation systems based on electric buses, financed by the German Cooperation Agency in Colombia (GIZ) and carried out by DESPACIO and KAPTA.

According to María Fernanda Ramírez, Sustainable Mobility Leader at DESPACIO, the study evaluates which vacancies will be generated throughout the electric public transport value chain, from e-bus procurement to daily operation. “There are three points where we need more people and training: drivers, maintenance technicians and those who would tune and prepare the vehicle”.

During this study, a partnership with the National Learning Service-SENA was made to complement the programs and guarantee women’s access through levelling programs while addressing gender inequality. “There are three levels of electricity operation courses. Many times, women do not have the knowledge to start at the first level because these are contents that have been traditionally male-oriented. So we must devise a ‘level zero’, which is useful for both women and men,” explains Ramírez.

One of the industries with the greatest labour inequality for women is the automotive industry. Cultural reasons and stereotypes are part of the glass ceiling that must be broken.


Alejandro Ceballos, Technical Advisor for GIZ’s TRANSfer III project, points out that the document is already in the hands of the National Government for them to adjust and implement the program. “It is the perfect opportunity. This technological transition will require more labour; therefore, the new labour force should be women,” said Ceballos.

Moscoso comments the current moments are advantageous since, due to the novelty of the technology, the field is even for both men and women. “Not so much previous knowledge presents itself as a difference between genders. Men don’t have as much prior knowledge, putting them ahead of women. The field is even; it is the opportunity for men and women to enter this new sector or market”.

ANA PUENTES – journalist for the newspaper El Tiempo

*With support from Loren Valbuena

On Twitter: @soypuentes

Translated by TRANSfer III Colombia, from the original article in Spanish:

Employability with a gender perspective in Colombias transport sector

This article is part of our #StoriesofChange where we profile the work of our partner countries in developing climate actions in transport. Read more #StoriesOfChange and follow the Hashtag on Twitter.

With the support of GIZ, the Colombian Ministry of Transportation and Learning National Service, are committed to the technical training of women and men to drive and operate electric bus fleets.

The main cities of Colombia have strengthened their public transportation by betting on e-mobility. During the last three years, the main Colombian cities have integrated many e-buses into their fleets; hence, Bogota integrated 879 buses, Medellin 69 buses, and Cali 36, showing significant progress regionally.

This rapid increase supposes a challenge hence achieving large electric buses deployment requires building enough human capacities to drive and operate these vehicles. Accordingly, maintenance services and driving skills will have to progressively turn their focus on electric technologies to cover the growing demand.

Electric buses Workshop by TRANSfer III Colombia. Cali, 2020.
Special thanks to MIO and Blanco y Negro for procuring their depots for the field visit.

The new conditions also suppose an excellent opportunity to close gender gaps at the operational levels of the transport sector by opening participation options for women throughout a value chain traditionally dominated by men, which is vital since lately, the Colombian National Administrative Department of Statistics, DANE, has called into attention the low access to economic and employment opportunities for women all over the Colombian Economy.

According to DANE, during the first quarter of 2021 (January – March), unemployment among women reached 21% in comparison to 12%, while the values for the same period in 2020 were 16.4% and 9.8%, respectively, showing that the pandemic’s effects over women employment were more critical than for men.

Considering that the transition to mass electric mobility could become an employment booster, aligning public policies and resources could lead to a significant generation of new jobs with high female participation. A strategy to reach these goals must consider:

  • Government goals regarding transport electrification and employment creation. 
  • A clear definition of resource alternatives and economic support.
  • The development rates of infrastructure and new technologies adaptation. 
  • Establish an educational and working framework that effectively answers the interests and needs of both men and women.

Accordingly, the project TRANSfer III in Colombia sponsored by BMUV, structured a capacity-building component called “Employability with a gender perspective in transportation” to establish the training programs and strategies for e-buses technicians and operators, including a strong gender perspective following a dual approach: 

  • Technically to create a robust knowledge base to enable men and women to develop diagnostic, operation, maintenance, and repair of electric vehicles, especially buses for public transportation.
  • Socially: sensitize and inform employees and employers on gender inclusion strategies in this sector to create a work environment where women feel welcome, safe, and comfortable; and actively participate in the electromobility value chain as drivers and technicians.

To meet this goal, GIZ supported the Ministry of Transportation with a consultancy study led by the firms Fundación Despacio and K@pta to design a technicians and operators training program with a gender-inclusive strategy for public transportation systems. The ministry and GIZ formed a strategic alliance with the National Learning Service of Colombia – SENA to include in their curriculum and employability platform the content necessary to train technicians on e-mobility, focusing on improving women’s job access.

Elizabeth Ortiz – Sector Dynamizer of SENA’s Curriculum Management Group, says that the consultancy was able to identify the local gaps in electromobility training with a gender equity approach by reviewing and learning from international experiences while considering the local market requirements and potential demand.

“SENA has training centers that handle electric technology at the level of light duty vehicles. At buses level, there has been an approach to companies that so far has only translated into a shallow immersion by instructors into the subject. So far SENA does not have programs designed for transit vehicles. That is the next step starting from with the results from working with GIZ”.

Elizabeth Ortiz – Sector Dynamizer of SENA’s Curriculum Management Group

SENA does not currently include in its training plans the repair and operation of electric buses. Therefore, is strategic to work with partners such as fleet operators, OEMs, and Management Entities, to acquire new technical knowledge to form instructors that could replicate knowledge and act as multipliers. This strategy will guarantee that the contents taught will be those required by the productive sector.

The curriculum proposed by the project is divided into different  levels of training according to the experience and participant’s competences:

  • Level 1 MECHANIC – Technical personnel sensitized in High Voltage Vehicles
  • Level 2 MECHANIC – Technical staff qualified in High Voltage Vehicles
  • Level 3 MECHANIC – Technical personnel specialized in High Voltage Vehicles
  • Level 1 DRIVER – Basic driving training
  • Level 2 DRIVER – Specialized Driving Training

On gender equity, Paula Pinilla,  Adviser, at the Ministry of Transportation, highlights that the consultancy is relevant for the sector because the Ministry’s sectoral gender committee seeks to close gender gaps, especially in women’s employability.

The consultancy helped identify the difficulties women face in entering the electric mobility value chain and propose actions to overcome these barriers of access and permanence, organizational and environmental barriers, among others, to be implemented jointly by the National Government and strategic allies.

“The consultancy identified organizational, environmental, personal, access, and permanence barriers for women employability on electro mobility. This was an essential learning experience because it is not enough to make huge calls for women to operate or drive the electric buses, but to think about the permanence of these women ensuring the compatibility within their personal lives and work routines”.

Paula Pinilla, Gender and Differential Approach Advisor at Environmental Affairs and Sustainable Development Group.  Colombian Ministry of Transportation.


Bogota, Colombia
Photos by Jair Fernando Ramos for TRANSfer III Colombia 2019

What’s next?

The lessons learned from the consultancy are that beyond convening women for this type of training, motivational strategies should be generated, with the support of the Presidential Council for Women’s Equity, the district and municipal women’s secretaries and the municipal mayors’ offices, in order to motivate and accompany women to participate in sectors and areas of work traditionally assigned to men and contribute to the transformation of stereotypes and achieve the effective enjoyment of rights and economic autonomy.

The training of women and men in electromobility will allow the massification of public transportation systems based on this technology to mitigate greenhouse gases and comply with the NDC from the transportation sector in line with the Sustainable Development Goals, especially Goal 5 – Gender Equality, 11 – Sustainable Cities and Communities and 13 – Climate Action.

The TRANSfer project is implemented by GIZ and funded by the International Climate Initiative (IKI) of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety.

Promoting efficient mobility and transport planning in Argentinean cities

In its second NDC from 2020 to 2025, the government of Argentina has increased its climate ambition by driving and recognising the urgency and priority of the issue in the design and implementation of public policies, as well as achieving a cross-cutting involvement. This includes the transport and mobility sector, responsible for approximately 14% of the country’s total CO2 emissions.

In order to strengthen concrete climate change mitigation measures in the sector at both national and local level, we at GIZ consider it vital to promote efficient mobility and transport planning in Argentinean cities.

That is why in May we launched the Support Programme for the Elaboration of Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMPs) in Argentinean Municipalities. This ambitious initiative will last 20 weeks, during which we will bring together local authorities from 20 municipalities involved in urban planning to provide them with the skills and knowledge necessary to develop and implement SUMPs in their localities.

This activity is framed within the actions of the Country Plan, developed through the EUROCLIMA+ programme. One of the actions agreed with the government of Argentina consists of the Development of Local Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans.

Course contents

The Support Programme for the Development of SUMPs in Argentinean Municipalities aims to strengthen institutional capacities to improve urban mobility, reduce negative environmental impacts, and take advantage of the benefits derived from sustainable mobility.

The course is structured with a synchronous e-learning instance, a synchronous learning instance and a third instance of specialised tutorial support.

It is structured in 4 consecutive phases following the SUMP methodology developed by MobiliseYourCity: Preparation and analysis, Strategy development, Planning of measures, Implementation and monitoring.

SUMP Cycle, developed by MobiliseYourCity

The modules and contents will be taken both synchronously and a-synchronously, in which participants will be able to complete the activities and review the contents according to their own time, as well as participate in live sessions to receive support from the tutors.

In addition to providing them with materials and contact with speakers with extensive experience in the SUMP methodology, participants have a discussion forum to exchange experiences among themselves, as well as tasks to implement the tools in their own municipalities.

In addition to GIZ and the Ministry of Transport, other participants include the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development, the Sustainable Urban Mobility Platform in Latin America of the EUROCLIMA+ Programme, the Centre for Sustainable Development GEO of the Faculty of Economic Sciences (UBA), the Asociación Sustentar and Rupprecht Consult.

Next steps

The course will conclude in September 2022. As a final deliverable, participants will produce a Draft Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan for their municipalities. Based on this document and the tasks developed, as well as other geographical, mobility and socio-economic criteria of their cities, 10 proposals will be selected to participate in the next phases of the action, in which they will receive technical support to develop and implement SUMPs and integrate the gender perspective in inclusive mobility pilot projects.

This programme is part of one of the 5 actions that are part of the Argentina Country Plan, developed through the EUROCLIMA+ programme in conjunction with other implementing agencies and the national authorities. Each of these actions is implemented autonomously, but there are opportunities to strengthen coordination and complementarity between them, which address issues such as climate empowerment, just energy transition, international climate finance, as well as rural and indigenous women for a climate justice.

The EUROCLIMA+ project is commissioned by the European Union and the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development.

Way forward on decarbonising urban mobility in South-East Europe

Countries in South-East Europe face obstacles when moving towards with sustainable mobility practices and overall decarbonization of their transport systems. In particular, city administrations face challenges in integrating sustainable transport and urban mobility into the municipal strategic documents of energy and climate planning, and recently, addressing these concerns has become one of their priorities.  

Learning about new technologies and applications in Berlin

Jointly, municipal representatives from the South-East Europe (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo*, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia, and Turkey) participated in-person at the Transport and Climate Change Week in Berlin from May 10 to 13, 2022.  

With the aim of learning more about European best practices, all participants visited EUREF Campus in Berlin to experience firsthand efforts of EUREF Campus on developing an real life laboratory for the shift to clean energy and future mobility, with themed discussions with ‘ubitricity’ and ‘Inno2Grid’. It was a great opportunity to learn about the application of new models and technologies through practical examples. 

While participating in the Transport and Climate Change Week Berlin programme, participants attended discussion on ‘Common Challenges, Joint Solutions – Multilateralism for climate action in transport’ lead by ‘AGORA Verkehrswende’. Followed by a fishbowl discussion on ‘Setting Policy Direction for the Freight Transport Sector’, presentation on ‘Global Impulses for Sustainable Mobility set up by ‘Correspondents Club’ and finally a discussion on ‘Shaping net-zero cities with active and public transport’ with the ‘MobiliseYourCity Partnership’. Overall, an overly rich experience shared and discussed amongst regional practitioners.  

South-East Europe Day at #TransportWeek2022

According to the participants’ feedback, the exchange of experiences reached its peak on the final day dedicated to the presentation of their urban mobility experiences, namely the ‘South-East Europe Conference Day’ – a regional city exchange and panel discussion with the subject of ‘Integrated energy, transport and climate planning’ organised by Open Regional Fund for South-East Europe – Energy, Transport and Climate Protection (ORF ETC). 

While the first part of the programme was important to set the scene, strengthen the regional cohesion and approach on initially technical solutions that could potentially be contextualized from EUREF Campus experience, and more of the policy driven changes and expectations discussed from Berlin Conference Day programme agenda, the second part was entirely attributed to the regional approaches and developments. So, the South-East Europe Conference Day took place on the May 13, 2022, an all-day hybrid event with global reach on participation.   

©GIZ Transport and Climate Change Week 2022, photo by ThomasEcke

The event was initiated by a discussion on European city approaches, such as urban mobility measures in Berlin presented by Martin Lutz (Head of Air Quality Management, Berlin City Environmental Administration) and Energy and climate planning at local level presented by Matej Gojčić (Deputy Director for Development, Development Agency of Ljubljana Urban Region in Slovenia). The discussion then followed with Fabio Tomasi (Projects Development Unit Manager, Innovation and Projects Institute, AREA SCIENCE PARK, Italy) who shared experience on ‘Harmonization of energy and sustainable urban mobility planning (SECAP & SUMP).  

A regional panel discussion was set up with special invitees such as Anuela Ristani (Deputy Mayor Municipality of Tirana), Mira Radenović (Member of the City Council, City of Novi Sad, Serbia), Ayşen Erdincler, Head of working group for SECAP preparation, Director of the Environmental protection department of the Istanbul metropolitan municipality, Turkey), Maia Tskhvaradze (Ministry of Environmental Protection and Agriculture of Georgia), Sylwia Słomiak (Foundation Forum Energii, Poland) and Fabio Tomasi (AREA SCIENCE PARK, Italy). 

A vibrant mix of themes, speakers, presenters and panelists provided the foundation for an enthusiastic and collaborative atmosphere throughout the day. A respectable regional city exchange and panel discussion took place, that outlined the critical views on current state of affairs and a craving hopes for a collective way forward in decarbonization agenda. 

Regional cohesion and sharing of best practices

Overall, there was a consensus that integration horizontally and vertically in terms of decision making, policy development as well as various themes of strategic planning are a must. Additionally, regional cohesion and sharing of best experiences needs to be put in practice to avoid the repetitive ‘reinventing of the wheel’ approach. 

A quote from the presenter Matej Gojičič illustrates best one of the regional priorities and needs:

The railway system should be the backbone of public transport in the region. To achieve this, you need integration of public transport. (…) Improvement of the railway system is something we have to do first.

Matej Gojičič, Development Agency of Ljubljana Urban Region (Slovenia), Deputy Director for Development

According to Martin Lutz “increased involvement of stakeholders and civil society is essential to ensure strong coherence between the different planning activities.” In conclusion, a quote from Anuela Ristani highlighted the importance of having the right mindset to decarbonisation of urban mobility:

How you picture future of your city is important and you should ask yourself whether such picture has traffic as the main element of your work or does it have quality of life in focus.

Anuela Ristani, Municipaltiy of Tirana, Deputy Mayor

The Open Regional Fund for South-East Europe – Energy, Transport and Climate Protection (ORF-ETC) focuses on developing regional capabilities in planning and implementing decarbonisation measures in the energy, climate and transport sectors. The project is co-funded by the European Union and the Federal German Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ). Under the name “EU4 Energy Transition: Covenant of Mayors in the Western Balkans and Turkey”, the European Union has been co-funding the ORF-ETC since 2021. In Turkey, the “EU4Energy Transition” project is funded by the EU and implemented by the Lithuanian Central Project Management Agency (CPMA).

SERIES: Women on the Move – Connect & Chat

Gender visibility means discussions, conversations, like the network offers, webinars, involving members and making them talk to us and share their experiences.

Dr. Sheilah Gaabucyan-Napalang (Assistant Secretary for Planning and Project Development, Department of Transportation, Government of the Philippines)

The Connect & Chat Series
Active exchange among members is particularly important for a network. For this reason, the Women on the Move Network launched the Connect & Chat Meeting series at the beginning of 2022. The series of one-hour meetings will take place every second or third Wednesday of the month. The sessions will include short inputs from inspiring women in the field and an open discussion with the audience.

Chat 4: Gender Inclusiveness in Transport Planning

By Mikaylah Cruz

When we’re planning for transport, people experience transport differently… It is important that we understand this unique lived experience.

Dr. Derlie Mateo-Babiano, Convenor of Women in Transport Leadership

When thinking of transport infrastructure, people usually have this normate template of a 6-foot tall, white able-bodied male, which leaves a fatal impact on marginalized sectors of society such as women and the disabled. On 15 June 2022, we invited Dr. Derlie Mateo-Babiano, who is a convenor for the Women in Transport Leadership network as well as Assistant Dean (Diversity and Inclusion) and Associate Professor in Urban Planning for the Melbourne School of Design, to talk about gender equality in the transport sector. She discussed the importance of inclusive planning in cities and communities as this would benefit not only women, but society as a whole. There was a Q&A section in which other network members shared their thoughts, comments, and questions, the full session is available to be watched here.  

Dr. Derlie talked about how each person experiences transport differently and that transport is a unique lived experience which transport planners need to understand to incorporate into their planning. She also noted that transport is not homogenous at all, because it is not only about the riding environment, but also includes the walking and waiting environment. It is important that we continue to work towards a more inclusive environment especially in the transport sector, but this cannot be done without collective voices to advocate for change such as networks, inclusive cities, and communities. 

Her ambitious work shows that taking into consideration the diverse needs of every single person in turn can support a more inclusive, sustainable future. She left everyone with the question: “What do you think is one thing that you could do in your own city/community to support inclusive planning and design, and help shape more inclusive and resilient communities for women and girls?” 

Chat 3: Active Transport Planning and Advocacy

By Mikaylah Cruz and Gwen Schmidt

Seeing the freedom of cycling, that it can bring you anywhere, is really empowering, not just for women, for everyone! But for women especially, the number one concern will always be safety. So, for that freedom to be extended we need that kind of safety and infrastructure.

Keisha Mayuga, Urban Planner at the World Bank

Due to the pandemic, people were given limited options for transportation. One of these included cycling, which in many regions is seen to be a quite ‘dangerous’ activity for a woman. On April 6, 2022, we invited Ms. Keisha Mayuga to our third Connect & Chat session, to discuss cycling and its value especially for women. She shared her experience on advocacy for active transport and promoting bike lanes as well as how to garner attention from those capable of making that advocacy happen, such as local communities and governments. Keisha helped set up bike lanes in the Philippines, starting from citizen-led pop-up bike lanes which then turned into permanent ones. Cycling became more than just a sport and people in the Philippines, especially women, started to see its value and the freedom it can provide.

In the open discussion with the attendees of the session, it was discussed how participation in active transportation can change the lives of women, but also which aspects are of highest concern for them. Safety and the right infrastructure to provide that security to feel confident enough to walk and cycle are the key factors determining the participation of women in active transport. She also stressed that if anyone wanted to help in this advocacy, it is important to build a community or network in which women can support each other, because jointly it is more attainable to make a change. Moreover, having champions in the local government and businesses to support the initiatve plays an important role in implementing these projects.

Her ambitious work with the government shows that anyone determined to make a change can pave their way through advocacy and that women truly have to work together if they want to attain positive change when it comes to their daily commute.

Chat 2: Pursuing a career in the transport sector

By Hanna Röttinger

A team with employees from diverse educational backgrounds provides us with essential knowledge for a successful implementation of our transport projects.

Mega Kusumaningkatma, Research consultant at the ICCT

In order to achieve gender equality in transport, we need more women employed in the sector. On 9 March 2022, we discussed with Ms. Mega Kusumaningkatma the question of how to engage more women in transport and some opportunities this career path offers. As a woman with an academic background in economics rather than in programs typically associated with transport such as engineering, she herself experienced difficulties starting in the sector. This was a concern she overcame with the help of a mentor who provided strong support and encouragement.

With her experiences as a young professional in transport, she now wants to inspire more women to join this field. The transport sector is so diverse and therefore the workforce needs to be too. We must work with people from various backgrounds–including economics, engineering, linguistics, materials chemistry, political science–to understand how we can better deliver a transport system that is socially, environmentally, and economically sustainable for everybody.

Her ambitious work shows that it is a viable option for women to join the transport sector and become part of the transformation towards a more sustainable transport systems.

Chat 1: Sharing experience from gender-sensitive public transport reforms

By Hanna Röttinger and Evhan Feliciano

Including female workforce is a process we must start now. We learn along the way, accept hiccups, and share our lessons learned with each other

Ms. Dipti Mahapatro (General Manager (P&A) Capital Region Urban Transport (CRUT)) 

Our first meeting on 31 January 2022 focused on the experience from gender-sensitive public transport reforms. For the discussion Ms. Dipti Mahapatro (General Manager for Personnel and Administration at the Capital Region Urban Transport (CRUT)) shared her experience with developing a public bus system with the goal to provide safe and accessible transport services for all citizens in the region of Bhubaneswar, India. During the implementation of the project she faced numerous hurdles, especially regarding safety issues for women working in public transport. They knew that to employ females, it is essential to gain their trust and include safety measures. With making safety for employees their highest priority, the organization set up cameras, proper lighting to avoid dark spaces and individual trainings, strengthening the confidence of their female staff. Due to her ambition of making women (and all members of the LGBTQIA+ community) feel safe, now more than 40% of CRUT employees are non-male. By offering them employment, women have the chance to receive their own income and become financially more independent.

Her ambitious work with the government is a great example on how important it is that women have a seat at the decision table to build a gender-inclusive infrastructure.  

Find out more about the network and its ambition to transform transport in Asia: Promoting gender equality in Asia – Changing Transport (

Become a Network member by joining the LinkedIn Group: Women on the Move: Transforming Transport in Asia | Groups | LinkedIn

Sign up here to stay connected and receive invitations to our future events:

Guide to Electric Urban Mobility in Uruguay

In the framework of the elaboration of its National Policy for Sustainable Urban Mobility (NUMP), the government of Uruguay presented the Guide for Electric Urban Mobility in Uruguay. This document will provide practical guidance in the decision making and definition of electromobility projects, both in subnational governments and in the private sector.

Its launch frames as one of the applicable instruments for cities, companies and civil society that will support the implementation of the NUMP Uruguay, developed in the framework of the EUROCLIMA+ programme with the technical support of GIZ.

This guide aims for departments to take it as an input and include electromobility in the design of their mobility and urban planning policies.”

Fitzgerald Cantero Piali, National Director of Energy of the Ministry of Industry, Energy and Mining

The guide aims to provide departmental governments with everything they need to promote sustainable urban mobility, including electric urban mobility, as well as to develop capacities at the national level and among all stakeholders involved.

To this end, multiple topics are addressed to achieve comprehensive coverage of electric mobility in the country: a state of the art of the current situation of electromobility, recommendations and case studies, as well as business models. It covers different aspects such as mobility of persons, freight transport, charging infrastructure and battery management.

As a complement to the Guide, it also offers a Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) analysis tool to be evaluated by initiatives with an interest in electromobility and to analyze their profitability.

The event was attended by representatives of the European Union, GIZ and the inter-ministerial group working on the elaboration of the NUMP Uruguay: Ministries of Industry, Energy and Mining (MIEM); Environment (MA); Housing and Territorial Planning (MVOT); Economy and Finance (MEF); and Transport and Public Works (MTOP); as well as the Office of Planning and Budget (OPP).

For the European Union, the issue of electric mobility is very important. We are interested in sustainable mobility and it is aligned with the themes of the European Green Pac.”

Marta Ramírez, EU Delegate in Uruguay

Currently, there are favorable conditions for electric mobility in Uruguay: 98% of the energy grid in Uruguay is renewable, there are 55 electric taxis in Montevideo and the first electric route in Latin America with 50 charging stations throughout the country.

You can access the Guide on Electric Urban Mobility in Uruguay (in Spanish) at this link.

Leapfrogging to sustainable mobility in Africa

By 2050, Africa is expected to be home to 2.5 billion people – many of whom will live in cities where they will increasingly use motorised transport. Even the countries are heterogenous, they have one thing in common, often already today’s transport systems cannot cope with this enormous growth.

This means that transport-related greenhouse gas emissions will increase rapidly. According to forecasts (SLOCAT 2021), these could amount to more than 1 gigaton of CO2 in 2050, only considering the transport sector. This would repeat a development that has been observed in Asia and especially in China since the 1980s and calls into question the achievement of the Paris climate goals.

At the same time, an extreme vulnerability to the consequences of climate change is already clearly noticeable in Africa today. While mobility of people and goods is a prerequisite for economic development, non-sustainable transport systems are at the same time a threat and may hinder achieving the SDGs and lead to several problems.

Sustainable Transport moves up on the African political agenda

The current social discourse in Africa is shaped by the need for economic development and challenged by strong social inequalities. State institutions often lack capacities and well-trained personnel with respect to the challenges ahead. International support is concentrated on the few institutions and partners that are often overstretched to translate support into concrete action.

Against this background, the opportunity for leapfrogging towards climate-friendly, sustainable mobility has hardly been debated so far. That’s why it was widely welcomed that policymakers, planners, entrepreneurs, and researchers from more than 20 African countries came together online during the Africa Conference Day of Transport Week 2022 to discuss how to make transport more climate friendly on the continent.

Six month ahead of COP27 in Egypt, high-level representatives from various African countries (watch the recordings of country spotlights and the high-level panel) emphasized, that the climate conference will be quite important for outlining a vision for the continent. For example, Transport Minister Moges from Ethiopia shared her vision for sustainable transport:

Especially African nations shall devote themselves and invest their time money and resources in safe and sustainable mobility. (…) We have to clearly indicate in our policies, strategies and plans that creating a sustainable environment through sustainable mobility is our focal agenda.

Dagmawit Moges (Ethiopian Transport Minister)
Dagmawit Moges (Ethiopian Transport Minister)

Decarbonizing transport and providing sustainable mobility systems is not an easy task. But the Africa event in the context of  GIZ’s Transport and Climate Change Week and funded by the International Climate Initiative of the German government gave also some hope and provided relevant key insights on the necessary transition in Africa. These can be understood as starting points for further discussion.

Insight 1: Sustainable financing mechanisms and better data are needed

The current low level of motorisation and urbanisation offers the opportunity to finance infrastructures in the coming years that combine high mobility with low traffic volumes. However, it is the shared responsibility of national governments and investors to coordinate and prioritise financing decisions in the transport sector. Currently China is the largest donor with about 25%.

But the EU – currently only responsible for 6% of investments – is stepping up its efforts and only recently launched the Global Gateway Initiative (watch recording). The plan, presented by Paolo Ciccarelli of the European Commission (DG on International Partnerships), is aiming at enhanced and greener EU-Africa connectivity. This is in line with the African Unions plans to develop corridors across the continent, which is currently supported by the Programme for Infrastructure Development in Africa (PIDA). If that plan is implemented, the share of railways could increase from 0,3% to more than 8% for freight alone (ECA 2022).

Figure 1: Investments in Infrastructure in Africa (Data from Global Infrastructure Outlook)

Data is an enabler for evidenced-based decision making and planning and therefore important for the development of the African continent. For example, Hindolo Shiaka from Sierra Leone explained how important data is to adapt transport infrastructure to climate change.

Insight 2: Good conditions for renewable energies are an opportunity

A vehicle industry can be developed in a sustainable manner.

In Africa, there are plenty of opportunities for enhancing renewable energy. Wind and sun can also power the transport sector, assuming if African countries focus on electrifying transport, as Asia, Europe or Latin America. This would require that the vehicle industry develops in a sustainable manner.

The workshop Unlocking the Electric Mobility Value Chain in Africa looked at how to unlock the value chain of electric mobility for the continent. Currently, more than 41% of the globally exported used cars are imported to the African market and 95% of car registrations in Africa are used cars (UNEP 2021). This dumping of polluting, second-hand ICE vehicles has to cease and be replaced by a local e-mobility solutions.

Bodawerk International from Uganda, WeTu from Kenya and Cargo Bike Africa are three examples of social enterprises that take up the challenge of building blocks of this local e-mobility value chain in their countries. To ensure long-term sustainability, implementing circular economy principals and thinking of multiple uses and lives of batteries (see our publication here) will be crucial.

One example for a successful policy transformation towards electric vehicles is Cabo Verde. In the session on transport and climate strategies of African countries (watch recording) the country presented its electric mobility action plan. The two other presenting countries Tunisia and Cameroon, both introduced their national urban mobility policies, that represent important pillar of their transport climate ambition.

Insight 3: The way African cities will develop is crucial for success

While more and more people move to cities, this is where people start to motorize. Cities are growing rapidly, and planners now need to take decisions that will influence travel behaviours for decades.

The MobiliseYourCity Partnership looked at local transport authorities (watch recording) with practical examples from Dakar and Abidjan). Such institutions are urgently needed to have a structured mobility system, to implement mobility policies, to manage the market and better rule the system of mobility. Such an institution would complement the efforts of more and more cities that develop Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMPs).

A key issue for SUMPs and African transport authorities would be the question, how to include paratransit operators. Informal transport is not only an important economic sector and delivers most of the transport services in hundreds of African cities, but they provide millions of jobs. Transforming transport in Africa is only possible if mobility needs of different social groups are considered.

Modal split of chosen African Cities (Data from MobiliseYourCity 2022)

In many African cities, 60 to 80% of the population walks or cycles. The challenge on how to maintain such high shares of active mobility is not receiving the attention it deserves. The workshop Streets for Walking and Cycling co-organized by ITDP and UNEP (watch recording) gave not only inspiring examples on bike-sharing in Cairo and city planning in Addis Ababa but UNEP also launched a Pan-African Action Plan for Active Mobility. The initiative intends to fast track the dialogue on active mobility on the continent and improve the infrastructure for walking and cycling.

COP27 as catalyst for leapfrogging to sustainable mobility in Africa

Finding ways of increasing the welfare on the continent while curbing (transport-related) greenhouse gas emission is the key challenge that is at stake in the coming decades. The Africa Day gave us reason for hope.

Start-ups presented their approaches to sustainable mobility and presented Sustainable Mobility as a Business Case (watch recording). The workshop on Data and Digitization for Better Mobility (watch recording) with Digital Transport 4 Africa showcased that open data is thereby a key enabler to for new business models and entrepreneurs. And finally, the SLOCAT Young Leaders, a group of smart students researching in Africa, inspired participants with a mock debate on the future of public transport (watch recording).

Decarbonizing transport and providing sustainable mobility systems is no small task. This is true in Africa as well. The 11 hours long programme in English and French showed impressively, how the sustainable mobility debate is gaining pace and how it can link mitigation, adaptation and sustainable development. COP27 in Egypt is a chance to move this up on the political agenda.

In further articles you can get more insights from different regions that have discussed various topics during Transport and Climate Change Week 2022.

Recordings of almost all sessions are accessible through the Programme on and available on the Changing Transport YouTube Channel. Find more impressions of the week on Flickr!

Mark you calendars: The next Transport and Climate Change Week will take place in September 2023.

The Transport and Climate Change Week was organised for the 5th time and is funded through the International Climate Initiative (IKI) of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Climate Action (BMWK) and the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Nuclear Safety and Consumer Protection (BMUV). It involves partners of GIZ and other implementing organisations and is organised by the Changing Transport Team of GIZ.

Delivering change – international cooperation for decarbonising freight transport 

How can we unlock the mitigation potential of freight transportation?

In this edition of our ‘stories of change’ series, we feature activities, results and lessons learned from the GIZ TRANSfer project in Peru, China and Indonesia to show how international cooperation can support the net-zero transition in freight transport. The TRANSfer project is one of the few international cooperation projects that started to deal with freight a couple of years ago. It is funded by the International Climate Initiative of the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Climate Action. 

Why is a focus on freight transport vital?

Recently, the Council for Decarbonising Transport in Asia ranked freight as the #1 blind spot in their “The Path to Zero” report, while freight is responsible for almost half of transport-related carbon emissions on the continent. And freight hardly shows up in the NDCs, the national climate plans submitted by the countries.

The lack of attention is one of several factors that puts freight transport into the group of ‘hard-to-abate sectors’ where the routes to net-zero are fuzzy and complicated. Freight vehicles make up 42% of global transport CO2 emissions, and their footprint will continue growing under current policies (by 22% until 2050, according to the ITF). In addition, trucks contribute disproportionately to air pollution relative to their global numbers. 

While each country’s freight system is specific, we find similar patterns in developed and developing countries: Freight transport is an extremely diverse and fragmented industry. Domestic markets consist of a small circle of big players and thousands of small enterprises that require support for a just transition. Modal fragmentation as well as a lack of data are widespread phenomena.  

© GIZ/Friedel Sehlleier

As freight transport is a predominantly business-oriented activity that is linked to geopolitical issues like trade, commodities and supply chains, its political economy, its drivers and its trends are in many ways different from passenger transport. The profit margins of freight operators are often so thin that investments in new, cleaner technology remain out of reach without supportive policies.  

For example, Chinese authorities and TRANSfer worked together on understanding and promoting the fuel-saving potential of truck tyres with low rolling resistance. At the time in 2016, however, we found that it can be difficult to convince companies to invest in such more expensive tyres. To overcome this barrier and to strengthen trust in the savings potential, further standards and regulations for tyre classification and labelling have been recommended. In addition, the analyses of the CO2 benefits of green tyres provided transparency on the contribution that their widespread adoption could yield for China’s climate targets: a reduction of 12-68 MtCO2 per year is possible even under the most conservative scenario.

Starting up green freight – how technical advice delivers change

No matter how important and how sidelined the issue of green freight may seem, we must focus on the issues that really matter to the people and institutions in the partner countries. This is always an imperative for development cooperation.

The main local development concerns in the freight & logistics sector are economic and social: to reduce the domestic costs of logistics and boost competitiveness with more efficient logistics; to facilitate trade through the development of well-connected logistic infrastructures for multiple transport modes; to improve traffic, road safety and local pollution with vehicle regulations; or, to address the skills gap for a modern, efficient logistics system. Any initiative towards green freight needs to deliver clear ‘wins’ for these local concerns.

2017 Indonesia Old Trucks Parking Lot © GIZ/Friedel Sehlleier

In Indonesia’s cooperation with TRANSfer, the modernisation of truck fleets emerged as a concern for the Ministry of Transportation. The Ministry chose this area of cooperation due to its linkages with its priority agenda of banning ‘ODOL’ (Overdimensioning and overloading of trucks) by 2023 to improve safety on Indonesian highways and toll roads. The hypothesis has been that the government’s push for a stricter enforcement of truck loading regulations could accelerate the replacement rate of truck fleets. With the right policies and incentives in place, this creates a window of opportunity to deploy a more environment friendly vehicle fleet.

Another area of cooperation in Indonesia has been the shift of freight flows on Java from road to rail. The topic aligns well with the government’s targets for strengthening the modal share of rail, with its logistic cost reduction agenda and with its planned investments in rail connections for several ports in the country. A technical study by TRANSfer identified a long list of potential policies and investments with which Indonesia could overcome the many barriers that prohibit rail freight from gaining significance. Several recommendations have already been implemented (e.g. a simplified registration process for multimodal transport operators) or have been included in official plans (e.g. freight mode shift is an action item in the NDC roadmap).

In Peru, the Ministry of Transportation and TRANSfer joined forces to tackle the skills gap of truck drivers on safe and fuel-efficient driving techniques. The obvious answer has been driver training, for which manuals and evaluation tools have been developed and tested with truck drivers. A national ecodriving program could generate 4 MtC02e of GHG emissions savings by 2030. Thus, ecodriving has been included in Peru’s transport NDC as a mitigation measure.

As driving performance and better freight vehicles are inextricably linked components of efficient road transport services, another key result of TRANSfer’s cooperation in Peru has been a scrappage programme for old, heavily polluting trucks. Around 16.8 million euros in public spending have been approved in 2020 to start the scrappage program.

Recognising that professional capacity of drivers is one of the key factors for fuel efficiency and safety, truck ecodriving is also the focus of one of our six climate action toolkits.

© GIZ/Friedel Sehlleier

Nothing works without effective stakeholder dialogues           

GIZ builds relationships with the communities and representative groups who have a stake in the local freight system. We continuously engage government, industry, local authorities and wider stakeholders in conversations about the scope of a more coordinated approach towards green freight action and how it could be delivered in practice. Without stakeholder support, no implementation.

The freight transport sector is often a somewhat ‘homeless’ issue as it lacks clear governmental ownership and coordination among parts of the government. In Peru, TRANSfer therefore acted as a faciltiator between government departments to enable a joint agenda. As part of the ecodriving and scrappage programme, the Ministry of Transport and Communication is collaborating with the Ministries for Environment, for Energy and for Finance.

2019 Indonesia FocusGroup Discussion Green Freight © GIZ/Friedel Sehlleier

Private sector engagement has special importance because the freight sector is predominantly a corporate world. To identify barriers and solutions, our team in Indonesia ran comprehensive surveys, multiple meetings and a series of workshops with industry associations, companies and state-owned enterprises. Aside from gathering information, these dialogues have been essential for establishing trustful relationships among public and private stakeholders, for addressing concerns and for ensuring a transparent process.       

What comes next?

The latest IPCC report (AR6 WG III) acknowledges that systemic transformations in the freight sector are needed to limit global heating. These transformations require public-private dialogue, positive stakeholder relations, agents of change and strong political will that holds against opposition and that is sensitive to the livelihoods of the sector’s workforce. The opportunities are plenty, but so are the barriers.

The international discourse on the decarbonisation of freight and logistics advances at a good pace. There are a growing number of events, knowledge products, governmental strategies, corporate climate targets, as well as new opportunities of vehicle electrification and PtX. The corona crises may have catalysed this trend.

International cooperation has a vital role to play in making green freight a global agenda and in turning it from opportunity to activity. While TRANSfer ends in 2022, other IKI- and BMZ-funded GIZ projects continue to tackle local barriers and to make change work in the freight and logistics sector, e.g. in India or in Mexico.  As Germany is a global logistics champion, its practices, policies and innovations are very much in demand our partner countries. In the years to come, there is a good chance for enhancing international cooperation on freight.

Ambato presents its SUMP to move towards sustainable mobility

The city of Ambato presented its Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (SUMP), an instrument that contains an action plan to promote changes in mobility, oriented towards sustainable modes that contribute to reducing emissions and improving people’s quality of life.  

In the framework of the Transport and Climate Change Week, the Mayor of Ambato, Javier Altamirano, presented the executive plan of the SUMP Ambato to funders, banks and international experts.

Read the Executive Summary of the SUMP Ambato (in Spanish).

Javier Altaminrano, Mayor of Ambato, presents the SUMP Ambato in the framework of the TCCW 2022 in Bogota, Clombia. (Credits: GIZ).

This project was supported for three years by GIZ through the EUROCLIMA+ programme. For its development, the MobiliseYourCity methodology was used, which provides a methodological framework and technical assistance that strengthens the development of institutional capacities and access to financing for the implementation of actions.

The SUMP Ambato is based on 3 structural axes: Clean Mobility, Energy Transition and Social and Environmental Equity. It contains 10 integrated packages of selected measures:

  1. Plan of urban interventions for sustainable mobility.
  2. Plan for the valuation of public and landscape space
  3. Demand management plan
  4. Clean and low carbon public transport programme
  5. Sustainable mobility infrastructure plan
  6. Programme for the reduction of GHGs from transport
  7. Programme for the reduction of inequality, poverty and gender gaps in transport
  8. Programme to improve accessibility for rural and specific populations
  9. Plan for road safety/personnel, perception and citizen culture
  10. Institutional, technical, financial and legal strengthening.

In turn, these measures explain the objectives, description, actions and time to be implemented, responsible entity, target audiences, measurement indicators and required budget, among others.

This action plan was designed based on a series of diagnostics (studies, surveys), participatory workshops, the creation of scenarios and the definition of indicators and goals. To ensure its adoption, political support from all stakeholders involved in mobility in the city is needed. At the same time, a socialisation of its contents will be carried out with the citizens.


Improve and Electrify 

The Avoid-Shift-Improve approach, implemented by the GIZ since the early 1990s, remains at the heart of a sustainable transformation of the transport sector. This article focusses on Improve, which addresses the improvement of fuel efficiency, fuels and transport infrastructure. The Asia Conference Day as well as the conferences in the other regions of the Transport and Climate Change Week 2022 highlighted many opportunities for improvement in the transport sector.  

Electrifying transport holds the largest potential to both reducing energy demand and increasing the use of renewable and local energy sources.

Oliver Krischer (Parliamentary State Secretary, Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Climate Action) 

Electrifying urban bus systems 

The large number and high density of fossil fuel vehicles in many Asian cities are a pivotal factor contributing to climate change, air and noise pollution. As the carbon budget left for 2020 to 2050 is 110 GT CO2, undoubtedly improved and electrified private and public transport fleets, particularly urban bus systems, are considered a key element in the efforts to reduce emissions. The early implementation of e-bus projects, especially in China, several cities across Asian countries and in Latin America, have proven that municipalities will have to play a key role in identifying alternative business models for large-scale e-bus deployment.

At the moment, upscaling e-bus projects from pilot stages remains a challenge. Ensuring long-term financing support for full-scale electrification is needed and requires a more favourable risk allocation. The adoption of alternate business models can overcome the challenge of initial capex for cities. However, TCO (total cost of ownership) optimization is becoming more important and adoption of smart digital services for project monitoring is the only way to ensure the sustainability of the projects over the full lifetime.   

Ho Chi Minh City – Viet Nam’s front runner in electric mobility 

To successfully shift to more sustainable and fuel-efficient modes, policy makers, the private sector as well as consumers need to support the transition. Immediate action is required to meet goals such as achieving net zero emissions by mid-century. Thus, projects supporting governments and cities in their ambitions, such as the NDC Transport Initiative for Asia (NDC TIA), which is currently supporting Ho Chi Minh City’s (HCMC) e-mobility action plan, are crucial in that transition. The roadmap they are developing with the city’s Department of Transport will be pivotal for putting the city on a fast track to e-mobility adoption and will provide important lessons for other cities. National and city governments can accelerate EV uptake by putting in place favourable legislation and rolling out charging infrastructure.  

Roadmaps for charging infrastructure 

In the session „eMobility – EV Charging Infrastructure“, at the Transport and Climate Change Week 2022, speakers from China, India, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam highlighted different aspects that are to be considered as Asian countries ramp up their electric mobility infrastructure. Prof. Le Anh Tuan (Hanoi University of Science and Technology) explained that in developing national and city level e-mobility roadmaps it is important to ensure that the roll-out of charging infrastructure is managed in a demand-oriented manner, also considering the capacity of the power grid.


The integration of electric mobility into the power grid is also a major field of research in India. Here Prof. Zakir Hussain Rather (IIT Bombay) warned of the negative effects that uncoordinated EV charging can have on the grid and pledged for a key role of smart charging infrastructure.

A concrete example on successful roll-out of charging infrastructure was shown by Candra Rakhmat (Transjakarta), who presented the overnight depot charging operations for the first 30 e-buses in Jakarta. He highlighted the future importance of opportunity charging for the growing fleets of e-buses.

Battery swapping systems – a promising approach

Dr. Pimpa Limthongkul (ENTEC, Thailand) and Mr. Hu Jinyong (CSAE, China) discussed the role of battery swapping, the hot topic in EV charging infrastructure. As the standardization of battery packs is a crucial element of the roll-out of battery swapping infrastructure, the multi-stakeholder project “Thailand Battery Swapping Platform” is developing battery packs that can be used by various motorcycle providers and charging operators.

In China, battery swapping technology is already being applied in the heavy-duty segment, where 6,000 vehicles are in operation and stations are available in over 50 cities. 

Agreeing on standardized battery packs for battery swapping will increase interoperability between vehicle manufacturers and swapping station operators, driving down costs and increasing sustainability.

Dr. Pimpa Limthongkul (Research Team Leader, ENTEC Thailand)  


Blind spot freight transport 

In the freight transport and logistics sector fossil fuels are burnt at an exceptionally large scale. Modal shift to railways is one solution, for which countries including Germany and India have ambitious political goals. Sustained political will is essential for having the necessary infrastructure planned, built, and utilized.

The CO2 benefit of mode-shift can be maximized with railway electrification. The honourable Special Secretary Amrit Meena, Head of the Department of Commerce, Ministry of Commerce and Industry, India, highlighted that his country is on track to achieve a 100% electrified network of broad-gauge railway by the end of next year.   


In many areas, transport is still too cheap, putting a price on carbon is essential for making companies reconsider their transport needs and investments. Moreover, measuring CO2 from freight transport and logistic operations remains a critical roadblock for supply chain decarbonisation. Methodologies and tools for carbon footprinting are in place, but they are not yet used widely or consistently by transport companies. Thus, industry-wide collaboration and sustained engagement of shippers, carriers and other supply chain actors is crucial for generating the emissions data. 

Progress on electrifying heavy-duty fleets in China 

In China, zero emission heavy-duty vehicles are promoted with a policy-mix of national and city-level sales targets, fuel economy standards and subsidies for vehicle purchase and provision of charging infrastructure. Electric urban logistics vehicles continue to become more common. To learn from such examples, the TCCW facilitates exchange on strategies and best practices, promoting collaboration on a global scale. 

Consideration and active participation of all stakeholder groups – a necessity for transforming transport systems 

Improving transport goes beyond electrification and increasing fuel efficiency. It also entails adaptations to increase the accessibility for women, individuals with disabilities and minority groups, which are often not considered sufficiently when infrastructure is designed. One of the reasons being the underrepresentation of these groups in ministries, boards, and management positions where those decisions are made. To raise awareness about this issue, a panel of experts discussed the need and approaches to increase participation of underrepresented groups in the sector. 


Many women across the world avoid using public transportation, walking, and cycling, especially at night, due to safety reasons. Bus and tram stations without sufficient lighting and security cameras, as well as a lack of secure bike lanes and sidewalks pose as an extensive barrier for women to choose public or active transportation modes over private vehicles.  

To achieve the transition to net-zero mobility, the sustainable transport options need to become more accessible and safer for all groups of society. Therefore, the involvement of all stakeholders is crucial, as Dr. Derlie Mateo-Babiano, Convenor of Women in Transport Leadership, stated during the panel discussion at the Transport and Climate Change Week 2022:  

If we come up with policies that respond to representation and participation and are co-produced with the stakeholders that we are trying to engage with, then we will have ownership and buy-in. Then, there is a high likelihood that they will be seamlessly implemented.

Dr. Derlie Mateo-Babiano (Convenor of Women in Transport Leadership)


These improvements and adaptations combined, would greatly contribute to transforming the transport sector and reaching the goals and commitments set in the Paris Agreement and at COP26. Additionally, various other topics such as fiscal policies, digitalisation and active mobility, which were discussed throughout the conference days, are of high importance for a sustainable transformation.

In further articles you can get more insights from different regions that have discussed various topics during Transport and Climate Change Week 2022.

Recordings of almost all sessions are accessible through the Programme on and available on the Changing Transport YouTube Channel. Find more impressions of the week on Flickr!

Mark you calendars: The next Transport and Climate Change Week will take place in September 2023.

The Transport and Climate Change Week was organised for the 5th time and is funded through the International Climate Initiative (IKI) of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Climate Action (BMWK) and the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Nuclear Safety and Consumer Protection (BMUV). It involves partners of GIZ and other implementing organisations and is organised by the Changing Transport Team of GIZ.

Avoid and shift – Achieving various sustainability benefits with active modes and transit

How can mobility develop its full potential to enable people an easy and safe access to opportunities without damaging their health and the environment or being an exacerbating factor of social inequalities? After two years of partial to near total confinement across the globe, the COVID-19 pandemic put a magnifying glass over the importance of SDG 11.2 in the UN 2030 Agenda. Never has there been a greater global need for safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems.

The sessions streamed from the Latin America Conference Hub of the 5th Transport and Climate Change Week in Bogotá shed light on the importance of AVOID (reducing trip distance) and SHIFT (to sustainable modes) and how they contribute to sustainable development.

Rapid structural change is needed – with people at the centre

At the welcome session Joseluis Samaniego, Director of ECLAC‘s Sustainable Development and Human Settlements Division, emphasized that countries have strengthened their ambition in the transport sector in their NDCs by 13%.

However, from a social impact perspective, the stimulus in fleet replacement benefits only 2% of the population, even though it has led to a significant and exemplary acceleration of electromobility. Hence, the relevance of putting people at the centre of the discussion was the driving theme during the whole week. 

It is essential to develop mobility plans that address the need for coordination and joint planning and include a multimodal, inclusive, affordable and gender-sensitive approach.

Joseluis Samaniego (Director of ECLAC’s Sustainable Development and Human Settlements Division)

Active mobility was boosted during the COVID-19 pandemic

Active mobility is not only the motor for a greener, less energy-dependent transport system, that allows cities to decrease their pollution levels. It also allows different social groups – regardless of income, gender, age, and abilities – to access services, social networks or employment opportunities in an easy, affordable and safe way.

Latin America, in line with global trends towards transport decarbonisation and sustainable mobility, has been implementing transformative actions to improve the equitable distribution of public space for cyclists and pedestrians. The COVID-19 pandemic demonstrated the region’s resilience, and experimental initiatives such as emerging cycleways were conceived in response to the need for bio-healthy transport, with a special focus on care travels.

For example, the city of Bogotá provided around 117 km of temporary bicycle lanes, many of which became part of the city’s permanent network; Mexico City did the same with 54 km of temporary infrastructure for cyclists; and Buenos Aires pedestrianized 100 streets with the objective of promoting economic reactivation through neighborhood commerce.

Many other cities in the region replicated these initiatives while producing guidelines to promote social distancing and demand management for public transport. These initiatives reaffirmed the region’s leading position in promoting active modes and have served as an example for other countries in the world on issues related to sustainable mobility beyond the context of the pandemic.

Policies and legislation are needed to trigger behavioural change

How to reach a user-centred transportation system and how to encourage a modal shift towards more sustainable options? During the session “Beyond the objectives of the NDC: challenges to close the gaps” in Latin America, various speakers highlighted the necessity to adopt new legislation and regulatory measures.

Mexico, for instance, strengthened its planning norms and regulations. Diana Quiroz, Director of Public Policies, Ministry of Agrarian, Territorial and Urban Development (SEDATU) of Mexico, explained how guidelines can function as a positive accelerator of behavioural change. According to her, considerable progress has been made in the development of design guidelines and standardization of public space with a transversal and bioclimatic approach, under the principle of the 4S: health, safety, sustainability, and solidarity.

Alejandra Álvarez, coordinator of the formulation team of the National Active Mobility Strategy at the EAFIT University of Colombia, presented the challenges of incorporating a gender and differential perspective and the need of enabling stakeholders to manage multiple instruments, as well as to unify the vision of all actors participating in this transformation.

Creating a sense of ownership of public spaces

Citizens’ participation in the design of measures is the most direct way to gain knowledge on mobility patterns and social needs. This is of special importance for active mobility and mobility planning. In this regard, experts and practitioners from Peru, Chile and Colombia exchanged on their experiences with integrated planning (watch recording). A highly participatory and purposeful design with the community, social organizations and stakeholders ensures that people develop a sense of ownership of urban public spaces.

One of the biggest challenges is to gain citizens’ trust in planning instruments. This is the only way to keep the instruments alive, and thus increase citizens’ participation, contribute to a higher quality of life, give a clear signal to the private sector to get involved in sustainable development, and share the vision on projects and city planning.

María Jara Risco (Executive President of the urban transport authority of Lima and Callao, Peru)

Similar experiences have been made in other regions as. An exchange between Latin American and Asian cities (watch recording) highlighted how participation follows cultural patterns specific to the place. But even within one culture, different social groups participate in the community differently and benefit from the positive effect of active mobility unequally. Therefore, the discussion concluded that it is key to manage different expectations, e.g. ensuring spaces for women’s participation.

Innovative thinking is needed

Innovative solution for active mobility and public transport was a cross cutting theme of different continents. E.g. the Cairo Bike Share System has significantly helped the Egyptian capital in advancing the implementation of a low cost and accessible public transport (watch recording). Bogotá was able to show how the Colegio de la Bici in Bogotá is offered to high school pupils as a complement to the general education programme (side visit in Latin America). 

Such innovations need to be complemented by strategic frameworks to promote cycling and walking. Colombia for example drafted a National Active Mobility Strategy (ENMA) and will be published in the second half of 2022. Another example was Addis Abeba´s strategy for non-motorized mobility that outlined clear policies, political support, and well-articulated multilevel roles of agencies and authorities (watch recording).

Furthermore, gender and a differential perspective are fundamental to promote the use of more sustainable modes of transport. A panel on care as an essential axis for building an equitable mobility system (i.e., to pick up or drop off someone, to receive or offer health care, or to go grocery shopping) highlighted the difference in mobility patterns between women and men.

In Latin America, 9 out of 10 women are engaged in unpaid care activities, while only 6 out of 10 men are. Moreover, 90% of women who do this work as their main activity are low-income and low-schooled women.

Adriana Ruth Iza Certuche (Secretariat of Mobility of Bogotá)

Therefore, the proportion of women who travel for care purposes is significantly higher than that of men. Despite the above, data gaps on the issue are still significant as surveys are often not gender-sensitive.

Walking and cycling need dedicated plans and budgets by governments 

Currently, international attention is very much focused on electric mobility. There remains a lack of funding for non-motorised modes. Benjamin Welle of WRI pointed out at the MobiliseYourCity session on “How to shape net-zero cities with active and public transport?” that cities should stop investing in large road infrastructure projects altogether. This, in turn, would free up public budgets that could be reoriented towards active mobility services and infrastructure.  

Investments in active mobility infrastructure, commonly fall under the jurisdiction of local governments. Although there is a common perception that local public budgets that prioritize walking and cycling are either insufficient or virtually non-existent, we have seen that the right circumstances, coupled with political will, are usually enough to significantly ramp up efforts to build or re-purpose infrastructure for pedestrians and cyclists.  The “Medio Milenio” bicycle highway in Bogotá implemented by the C40 Cities Finance Facility and GIZ is a good examples that highlight the need for a robust technical justification for the implementation of projects. 

In addition, international financial institutions can provide additional financial support to governments. Ian Jennings, Senior Urban Transport Specialist at EBRD, explained that large infrastructure projects, especially mass transit, are useful instruments to leverage additional investments into active mobility – a point shared by James Leather, who stated the importance of pedestrian connectivity to mass transit services. Nonetheless, Ian Jennings argued that there is still a need to explore additional financial instruments, beyond traditional investments, through which international and development organizations can support local governments to promote walking and cycling.

If you are interested in more information, read the 8 key messages from experts on how to shape net-zero cities with active and public transport on the MobiliseYourCity website.

In further articles you can get more insights from different regions that have discussed various topics during Transport and Climate Change Week 2022.

Recordings of almost all sessions are accessible through the Programme on and available on the Changing Transport YouTube Channel. Find more impressions of the week on Flickr!

Mark you calendars: The next Transport and Climate Change Week will take place in September 2023.

The Transport and Climate Change Week was organised for the 5th time and is funded through the International Climate Initiative (IKI) of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Climate Action (BMWK) and the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Nuclear Safety and Consumer Protection (BMUV). It involves partners of GIZ and other implementing organisations and is organised by the Changing Transport Team of GIZ.