‹ show all publications

29 November 2019

Reforming the (Semi-)Informal Minibus System in the Philippines

The ‘Public Utility Vehicle Modernization Program’ Early Route Evaluation

This report aims to shed light on early experiences with one of the most ambitious (mini-) bus sector reforms in the world. The report evaluates selected aspects of the “Public Utility Vehicle Modernization Program (PUVMP)” of the Philippine Government, which aims to modernise the mini-bus sector (jeepneys) in the country.

The reform goes beyond the fleet renewal of more than 180,000 jeepneys, but also pushes for industry consolidation and a reform of the franchising system to overcome unsustainable industry pattern that have negative impacts on users, operators and the environment. Once fully implemented, the reform has the potential to avoid annual GHG emissions of around 1.73MtCO2 and reduce PM emissions, caused by the jeepney sector, by 90%.

The report presents information regarding the operational characteristics and economic performance of the modernised fleets and routes. The study aims to provide insights of the experiences of the first operators that have shifted to new vehicles and modernised operations, including detailed ‘real-world’ operating data and survey. It analyses the viability of the modernised routes to allow early learning and adjustments.

This viability assessment includes the thorough analysis of the jeepney modernisation and financing approach, including the return on investment under modernised operation, in order to show the consequences of the programme for operators. Finally, the document aims to contribute to the global discussion around mini-bus sector reforms as part of a wider push to electrify and future-proof (mini-)bus fleets worldwide.


42 Pages
Language: English
    Authors (alphabetical order):
  • Christian Mettke
  • Patricia Mariano
  • Robin Kaenzig

10 Principles for Sustainable Urban Transport