This article is part of our #StoriesofChange where we profile the work of our partner countries in developing climate actions in transport. Read more #StoriesOfChange and follow the Hashtag on Twitter.
Defining mobility patterns is important, but what happens when not all modes are included, and patterns are not differentiated by gender?
Traditionally, family roles are highly genderized; therefore, women mostly fulfil household and care activities. This implies different mobility solutions for women and men, as women tend to take several trips per day to complete various caretaking and housekeeping activities.
For example, in San Juan Comalapa, Guatemala, women travel significantly more often by tuk-tuk (25%) than men (6%). In contrast, men use bicycles for 20% of their trips. Moreover, 11% of the population has difficulties accessing urban mobility services. This is the scenario is not very different from the reality in many other small cities in Latin America.
The Electric Tricycle Pilot project, which is part of the EUROCLIMA+ Programme, allowed us to introduce electric transport to boost the renewal of old petrol-powered tuk-tuks, to increase the accessibility of public transport, improve solid waste management in areas of the municipality that are difficult to access, and to provide public transport service to people in vulnerable situations who so far used to receive a poor service or simply didn’t received it at all.
The project was completed in May this year and also included capacity building in matters of climate change, sustainable mobility and gender in order to become a good example in the region and to be able to replicate in other areas of the country or even in the region, where there are no similar examples.
This is the story of how San Juan Comalapa introduced electric tuk-tuks to improve transport services in a more sustainable way in their community, whose population belongs to the indigenous Kaqchiquel community.
In 2018, the journey for the implementation of the pilot project began. Meetings were held with the association of tuk tuk owners where 3 women, owners and pilots of units, participated as well. In the first workshops, an attempt was made to define the route for the implementation of the electrical units.
However, the doubt and skepticism of the operation of the electrical units by the members of the tuk tuk association were always an important factor within the project. Building trust in electric mobility is one of the challenges we have to face, as today there are still cultural barriers to its implementation.
To achieve a good implementation, it was necessary to carry out a series of base studies with the intention of knowing the situation of mobility in San Juan Comalapa, as well as knowing examples of similar projects in Latin America and knowing the market for electric tricycles in the region.
In the same way, a study trip was made to Mexico with the intention of knowing examples of electric tricycles already successfully implemented and in this way being able to know the advantages and disadvantages, the different business models and the technical specifications of the units to be able to ensure their successful operation.
With the arrival of the pandemic, the project implementation process slowed down. Sanitary measures in Guatemala were strict, so the possibility of carrying out activities became extremely complicated. San Juan Comalapa is a rural municipality, so there was no internet everywhere and a large part of the population does not have internet at home, so holding online workshops or seminars was not an option.
However, once the sanitary measures were reduced, it was possible to learn more about the beneficiaries of the units for people with disabilities and we were able to understand the limitations with which they currently moved and the benefits they would obtain once they received the unit. It is also important to highlight the great work that mothers do to support their children to obtain education or therapies.
Understanding the uses and customs of the community of San Juan Comalapa, and how these are linked to the dynamics of mobility, was a very valuable process for us. To make people aware of the project, communication materials were produced in Kaqchiquel, as the following examples show:
Project implementation cannot be done in a top-down manner. Integrating people’s experiences and needs was an aspect we contemplated from the beginning. Although the pandemic slowed down the process, this phase was as important as other technical aspects such as the study of the geography of the municipality, the definition of the characteristics that the units should have and the financial analysis for their acquisition.
In May 2022, the presentation ceremony of the 2 electric units for public transportation, 4 units for solid waste collection and 3 for the transportation of disabled people, as well as the charging stations, was held.
Along with the delivery of the units, training workshops were held on the proper use of the units and their maintenance. A caravan –an important tradition in the community– was held to present the units, with the intention that the population of San Juan Comalapa become familiar with the units and feel part of the project.
The intention of having 2 units for public transport is that the tuk tuk association gets to knows the units, tests them and get convinced of their usefulness.
The units for disabled people were costume made, since it is possible to travel with a person in a wheelchair plus a companion, through a hydraulic ramp. These units were donated to schools and social organisations, who will make exclusive use of the units to transport the population they serve.
The solid waste collection units are intended to dignify the work, make it faster and more efficient.
Early inter-institutional coordination and capacity building are crucial. It is necessary to improve inter-institutional coordination when implementing this type of project, since there are many actors involved, and they are not necessarily trained in mobility projects.
Different entities were involved, such as the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, the Ministry of Education, as well as the waste collection department and other sectors involved in the execution of the project, which added complexities to its management.
We also emphasise the need for a respectful and empathetic approach to the community where the initiatives are implemented, as their involvement is crucial to ensure their success.
While this process was not easy, one lesson is to integrate community leaders into project decision-making and to generate horizontal communication campaigns that familiarise people with electric mobility and related issues.
In addition, we emphasised the importance of knowledge management and the collection and systematisation of information, a crucial step in pilot projects that seek to scale up.
The project was completed with the delivery of the electric tuk-tuks. San Juan Comalapa’s experience has been shared in different international forums and events, which has aroused great interest. A promising future in the implementation of electromobility projects can be foreseen in Guatemala.
The initiative has conditions for its scaling, but dissemination and marketing actions needs to be carry out. Electric tricycles may be used in more touristic municipalities such as Antigua and replicate the solid waste collection model. This responsibility can be carried by the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, which is in line with the recent energy transition and electric mobility policies that Guatemala has promoted at the national level.
On our side, we will continue to promote the lessons learned and share this story whenever we have the opportunity. In this way, we continue to promote electric mobility adapted to the Latin American context and reality.
It is now clearer to us that, in addition to contributing to the reduction of emissions in the transport sector, it is vital to provide decent mobility services that improve people’s lives and reduce social inequalities. The energy transition must be a just transition.
This article is part of our #StoriesofChange where we profile the work of our partner countries in developing climate actions in transport. Read more #StoriesOfChange and follow the Hashtag on Twitter.
How to transform urban mobility in the second largest metropolis in the country? In 2018, the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area (AMG) started with an ambitious goal: to improve mobility planning towards sustainable modes in its 9 municipalities, each with quite different characteristics in terms of size, population density, urban development, access to services, among others.
The Metropolitan Planning Institute (IMEPLAN) embraced this goal to contribute to Mexico’s national climate change strategy to reduce mobile pollutant emissions. This was tangigle in 2 projects approved by the EUROCLIMA+ programme “Strengthening of the Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan” and pilot project “Metropolitan Travel Analysis (Periplo)”.
After four years of implementation, I would like to tell you a little bit about this wonderful journey through the lessons learned and preliminary results we have achieved so far.
When we started the cooperation work, the AMG had a Comprehensive Sustainable Mobility Plan (SUMP) that was produced in 2015. This document was inefficient to address and solve the mobility problems of the metropolis, mainly due to the following reasons:
Our goal was to be able to build a public policy ready for implementation that would make the previous work tangible. Therefore, through our first workshops with the participation of authorities we outlined actions that would facilitate the evaluation and revision of the SUMP. These recommendations were:
1. Involve citizens, citizens and stakeholders.
2. Sustainable mobility plan in the functional urban area
3. Define a long-term vision and a clear implementation plan.
4. Develop all modes of transport in an integrated manner.
5. Cooperate across institutional boundaries for monitoring and evaluation.
Understanding the city’s mobility dynamics was one of the first challenges in drawing up a SUMP. This first step is vital, especially on a metropolitan scale.
As part of the cooperation, during these 4 years we carried out the following studies:
To achieve this, this initiative stood out for the broad involvement of actors through participatory planning programmes created with civil society, academia, the private sector and other public sector agencies.
The constraints arising from the health emergency significantly conditioned the co-construction of the SUMP vision. The main challenge was to find virtual and interactive ways to work with the actors involved, but this opened the opportunity to eliminate geographical barriers, allowing the participation of experts from other parts of the country and beyond, providing greater solidity to this process.
These learnings change the landscape of traditional participation and bring flexibility to the whole process, not only for this stage or this instrument but for all similar ones.
Parallel to the update of the SUMP, we are working on the pilot project “Metropolitan Travel Analysis” whose objective is to have a digital tool that allows the collection of data on the trips of the metropolitan population.
The digital application Periplo is a complementary part of the strengthening and updating of the SUMP, as it provides periodic information in the short term, which will allow a more dynamic and flexible mobility planning, thus taking a step forward in the use of digital tools for mobility planning.
This tool will offer citizens a trip planner that will provide them, in addition to the most efficient routes between their points of origin and destination, with complementary information for a better and safer travel experience.
This includes recommendations for greener, safer trips, location of strategic points such as taxi stations, shared bicycles and emergency points, real-time notifications for stops, public transport service failures, floods, among others.
We know that cooperation in these projects has a limited time and budget. To ensure continuity in the implementation of the SUMP, we not only provided support in updating data and information, but also worked with the IMEPLAN team to strengthen the technical capacities that allow them to follow up and put the SUMP into action.
In this regard, training was provided on structuring sustainable urban mobility plans, urban freight logistics, financial structuring, MRV systems and the use of emissions calculators (MobiliseYourCity and Ecologistics).
Also, for the implementation and operation of Periplo, the IMEPLAN team as well as the pilot project related to the management and updating of GTFS files, use of data in mobility planning, use of data visualisation platforms.
The COVID19 health crisis halted and modified the way people travel from one point to another in cities, not only in terms of the restriction of movement, but also in the way and frequency in which they do so.
As in many cities, the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area experienced the ravages of mobility restriction and also the demand to address new travel needs in the presence of COVID.19 Measures were implemented such as emergency bicycle lanes, strategies to provide free transport for health workers, temporary transport for women and children, who suffer greater vulnerability in public space, and changes in public transport.
A resilient city is one that assesses, plans and acts to better prepare for and respond to disasters that may occur. Therefore, promoting resilience means reducing risks by increasing capacities and decreasing vulnerability in order to implement effective solutions. This was reflected in the SUMP through measures learned during the contingency.
The SUMP of the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area is an interesting case for mobility planning, as it is applicable in a territory that involves 9 different municipalities with diverse characteristics that share problems and needs, but with such different resources among them, that planning becomes an important challenge.
A fundamental part has been the metropolitan governance structure already in place in the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area, which has allowed the spaces for dialogue and consensus for the development and structuring of the SUMP to take place. However, these were not easily assimilated, so the alignment between normative instruments implied an intense work of participative planning and the development of tools to facilitate their understanding.
For the SUMP, a thorough review of the rest of the existing planning policies was carried out, not only those in the field of mobility but also in all related dimensions, in addition to articulating and giving continuity over time to initiatives that would not necessarily end in a given government period. To ensure this, the Metropolitan Alignment Tool was developed, which synthesises everything involved in metropolitan development and how it relates to each other, allowing for a clear picture of all existing relationships, objectives and progress.
This tool is a great help for the different agents and guarantees the proper fulfilment of the alignment with all planning policies. Its constant revision allows to keep objectives and targets always up to date.
With the launch of the Emerging Metropolitan Mobility Strategy (EMME) and the Periplo application ready to be implemented, the EUROCLIMA+ programme concluded the cooperation activities with the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area.
IMEPLAN now has the basis to continue strengthening its PIMUS and to collect travel information closer to reality and to the changes that citizens and the local context present to them.
For our part, we have learned the importance of applying participatory and governance processes at the metropolitan scale. Although this was a challenge, integrating the collective vision allows us to approach the reality of the 9 municipalities and address the needs from their particularities, with a broader vision.
We also welcome the great effort to integrate regulations between urban mobility, land use planning and climate change actions. Implementing aligned strategies and actions will make it possible to improve the living conditions of the population of the metropolis in the long term.
An example of this is the Emerging Metropolitan Mobility Strategy (EMME) which serves as an urban mobility guide that supports the new administrations of metropolitan municipalities to cope with the new normal. It is a useful tool for the construction of the mobility component in the Municipal Development Plans, currently under preparation.
In addition, the AMG faced the consequences of the COVID-19 health crisis with resilience, through emerging mobility measures. An example of this was not discontinuing the Origin-Destination survey in 2020. This provided us with valuable information on population travel changes, which was integrated into the ENME and subsequently into the SUMP.
Innovation is one of the indispensable elements of mobility planning, and the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area has sought creative ways to do this. Such is the case of the Periplo pilot project, a new opportunity to plan for the future and adapt quickly to changes in cities.
BANGKOK, 26 September 2022 – the Office of Transport and Traffic Policy and Planning (OTP), together with the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH celebrate their successful collaboration in Thailand’s Sustainable Clean Mobility under the implementation of the Facilitating the development of ambitious transport mitigation actions (TRANSfer) project. Over the past five years, OTP and the TRANSfer-Thailand project have jointly engaged with many related agencies to explore alternative solutions for solving the most enduring urban transport issues, i.e., emission mitigation, traffic congestion, and public transport service improvement.
Thailand Clean Mobility Programme (TCMP) has been designed to not only solve persistent transportation problems, but also propose sustainable solutions for alleviating the adverse impacts from PM2.5 air pollution and thereby reducing Greenhouse Gas emissions in line with the Thai government’s intentions to reduce 20 % GHG emissions by 2030. The creation of the TCMP focuses on three topics, including the pre-assessment of a congestion charge scheme development for Bangkok , bus fleet modernization, together with the establishment of a Clean Mobility Fund.
To fight climate change, Thailand is keeping up its development of public transport such as the expansion of the metro lines in Bangkok, and the use of public transportation by improving and transforming internal combustion engine buses to electric vehicles. Thailand is aiming to reduce 31MtCO2 of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions to achieve its transport Nationally determined contribution (NDC) target in 2030. During COP 26 in Glasgow, United Kingdom, Thailand expressed an even higher ambition to fight climate change in aiming to reach carbon neutrality in 2050 and net zero emissions by 2065. With adequate, timely and equitable support, through technology transfer and cooperation and, most importantly, the availability of and access to ample green financing facilities, Thailand can increase the NDC target to 40% and sooner reach carbon neutrality and net zero emission goals.Mr. Chayatan Phromsorn, Permanent Secretary General, Ministry of Transport
Even though the TRANSfer project has come to the final chapter, we still continue our ambition to reduce GHG emissions. As well, we will continue the legacy of the TRANSfer project to improve better transportation such as the study of the congestion charge scheme possibility and suitability for Bangkok and find a solution to create the Clean Mobility Fund for public transportation improvement. I believe that what we are doing in TRANSfer will create a lot of impacts in part of reducing emissions and creating sustainable transportation. We still continue working with GIZ for other upcoming projects such as the update of the NDC Action Plan for the transport sector and introducing pathways for optimizing vehicle efficiency and zero-emission vehicle.Mr. Punya Chupanit, Director General, Office of Transport and Traffic Policy and Planning
Electric mobility is an essential driver to decarbonization in the transport sector, and it also plays a pivotal role in the 160-years of cooperation between Germany and Thailand. Whilst the EV market starts to bloom globally including Thailand, local governments should consider the investment and business models for fleet electrification, necessary charging infrastructures, as well as skill labor development. A climate finance and international cooperation can play a crucial role on the future of electric mobility in Thailand.Mr. Georg Schmidt, the German Ambassador to Thailand
The pre-feasibility study of the TCMP for Bangkok shows significant potential to reduce traffic congestion in the city, which could help to lower emissions from cars in high-density areas of investigated scenarios. Also, changes in network speeds and the use of public transportation modes within the study area range would be significantly increased. For public transport electrification, the financial evaluation suggests that the total cost of ownership of e-bus is 23% lower than that of a diesel bus mainly due to the difference between the fuel and electricity costs for its operation. By electrifying 3,200 NGV public bus in Bangkok Metropolitan Region, it could reduce 184,000 tCO2/year. However, the subsidy or incentives program are indispensable to improve public transport services in long run.
The Facilitating the development of ambitious transport mitigation actions (TRANSfer) project has been commissioned by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Climate Action (BMWK) through the International Climate Initiative (IKI). The project is implemented by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH. The objective of the project is to increase the efforts of developing countries and emerging economies to foster climate-friendly transport with international support. In Thailand, the TRANSfer project is supporting the Office of Transport and Traffic Policy and Planning (OTP) in the development of the Thailand Clean Mobility Programme (TCMP) since 2017
The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH is owned by the German government and with operations around the globe. GIZ provides services in the field of international cooperation for sustainable development. GIZ also works on behalf of other public and private sector clients both in Germany and overseas. These include the governments of other countries, the European Commission, the United Nations and other donor organisations. GIZ operates in more than 120 countries and employs approximately 24,000 staff worldwide. (As of 31 December 2021).
The TRANSfer project is implemented by GIZ and funded by the International Climate Initiative (IKI) of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Nuclear Safety and Consumer Protection (BMUV).
India now has a National Logistics Policy (NLP). It was launched by Hon’ble Prime Minister Sh. Narendra Modi on 17th September 2022 with a vision to develop a technologically enabled, integrated, cost-efficient, resilient, sustainable and trusted logistics ecosystem in the country for accelerated and inclusive growth. This is big news since India is the world’s fifth biggest economy, yet has a logistic performance far below many regional and global peers.
A significant step for India’s development
Speaking on the occasion, the Prime Minister called the launch of the NLP a significant step in fulfilling the ‘Pran’ (meaning breath in hindi) of India being a developed country. The resulting improvement in coordination will lead to the desired speed in the sector.
To ensure quick last mile delivery, end transport-related challenges, save time and money of the manufacturers, prevent wastage of the agro-products, concerted efforts were made and one of the manifestations of those efforts is today’s National Logistics Policy.
– Hon’ble Prime Minister Sh. Narendra Modi
Keeping the competitiveness in mind
The need for a policy was felt since the logistics cost in India is high as compared to other developed economies. It is imperative to reduce the logistics cost in India for improving the competitiveness of Indian goods both in domestic as well as export markets. Reduced logistics cost improves efficiency cutting across various sectors of the economy, encouraging value addition and enterprise. The Prime Minister also claimed that this policy will bring down the logistics cost of businesses from 13-14 per cent to around 8 per cent making India at par with countries like Germany and Japan.
The NLP will be implemented through a Comprehensive Logistics Action Plan which includes action areas such as integrated digital logistics systems, human resource development and capacity building, National support for action by cities and states, efficiency, or multimodal logistics parks. In addition, the NLP’s implementation will be supported trough the Unified Logistics Interface Platform which combines the data systems on transport and logistics activities by multiple government agencies. The platform will allow to monitor the NLP’s progress and to take well-informed decisions for more efficient and sustainable logistics.
Further information on the NLP and the related initiatives is described in this booklet 2022_NLP India booklet.
Positive impact of sector’s carbon footprint expected
The ‘Climate Friendly Freight Transport in India (Green Freight) project ‘ under the Indo-German development cooperation that Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH implements on behalf German government’s International Climate Initiative has been working closely with the project partner – The Logistics Division, Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT), Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India in the NLP’s preparation and launch. The policy doesn’t refer explicitly to climate protection, yet many of the planned actions are expected to have a positive impact on the sector’s carbon footprint.
The NLP and associated plans have been in the works for around three years and GIZ’s Green Freight project has and will continue to contribute significantly to
The Government of India has formulated a clear and ambitious policy agenda for logistic system development. The NLP boosts the profile of logistics as political issue in India, and it will be the key reference for GIZ India’s ongoing support towards environmental sustainability in the freight transport sector.
Ambitious targets to transform transport
In its NDC, Chile set targets of a 30% reduction in emissions by 2030 and carbon neutrality by 2050. With a 214.5% growth in GHG emissions since 1990, transport is a key sector to achieve the country’s medium and long-term goals.
Within the transport sector, electromobility has become a fundamental pillar for the reduction of emissions and an opportunity to improve the public transport in the country.
The National Electromobility Strategy of Chile has defined an ambitious roadmap for developing this technology, projecting a reduction of around 20% of the country’s energy consumption emissions with its implementation.
Among the defined targets is the electrification of 100% of urban public transport of buses, taxis and colectivos (fixed-route taxis) by 2040. The work to achieve this ambitious goal has already begun in the capital Santiago, one of the region’s hubs, with the second largest fleet after Bogotá.
But expanding to smaller cities poses significant challenges.
A pilot project for the strengthening of electromobility
Moving Chile, in cooperation with the Ministries of Transport and Telecommunications and the Ministry of Energy and Environment is developing a pilot project to support the deployment and development of electric mobility in public transport in cities outside Santiago in Chile. The pilot is being implemented by the Chilean Energy Sustainability Agency (ASE in Spanish), as a catalyser to two relevant Government initiatives, Mi Taxi Electrico and RED Regiones, through two working lines:
The first one seeks to increase the deployment of fast charging networks in at least 10 cities of Chile and accelerate the adoption of electric light public transport in intermediate cities, contributing to creating the first electromobility ecosystems in regional capitals outside Santiago. The focus relies mainly on taxi and colectivos (fixed-route taxis), a key actor for the public transport system in the country’s smaller cities.
The second line aims to strengthen capacities on electromobility of current public transport operators in intermediate cities. To this end, a training programme will be deployed, including educational material, classes, technical visits and a help desk support. This programme is expected to improve the competitiveness of smaller operators, thus contributing to their integration to the electromobility ecosystem.
The lessons learned with this pilot project will be collected, systematised and disseminated to amplify the impacts and bring effective solutions for the growth of electromobility both in Chile and in the Latin American region.
This article is part of our #StoriesofChange where we profile the work of our partner countries in developing climate actions in transport. Read more #StoriesOfChange and follow the Hashtag on Twitter.
With a good idea, enough capacities and a suitable plan, what could possibly go wrong? As the pilot project on the “Promotion and development of urban cycling in Montes de Oca and Curridabat” proved, there is a multitude of obstacles to overcome in order to successfully improve the conditions for urban cycling. In two municipalities of Costa Rica’s capital, an example of how to keep focused, flexible and determined was set that opened pathways to further contributions to the mobility transition.
The context of the project seemed hands-on and pragmatic: two municipalities are interested in establishing cycling a safe, healthy, efficient and accessible means of transport in their jurisdictions. There is more to it: they even teamed up across institutional barriers to seek financial and technical support from the Euroclima+ programme. With a straightforward plan to improve cycling capacities of current and potential future cyclists and the construction of a network of bicycle paths that would connect the two municipalities, the tone was set for a successful pilot project with the support of Euroclima+.
Kicking off in August 2018 the project was innovative from the very beginning. Participatory planning processes, data gathering, educational measures and complementing studies would constitute the panorama of project activities. The plan was to let this lead to the construction of bicycle paths that would directly respond to the communities needs’ and demands.
In January 2022, the project ended and many of the activities were carried out differently than foreseen, encompassing new elements, ditching others and replacing yet others. To find out how this project turned out to be different than planned and still very successful, this article will revisit several of the challenges that the project overcame.
First of all, why should we even bother with cycling in a car-centered country such as Costa Rica? Local authorities in Costa Rica just like in many other Latin American countries find themselves in a context where nationally determined contributions already include targets on the transport sector, but the local level has yet to develop its individual strategies to the mobility transition. On country level, the transport sector is responsible for 54% of the greenhouse gas emissions, which policy makers are determined to change according to their NDC and Long Term Strategy. Against this backdrop and considering the limited scope of action that municipalities have, cycling is in an important opportunity to route the transition towards more sustainable modes of transportation. Apart from contributing to climate change mitigation efforts, improving conditions for active mobility furthermore does its share for public health and wellbeing, facing inequalities and enhancing air quality in the city. If this is not convincing enough, the project also helped to build alliances and synergies between different institutions, fostering coordination and cooperation, and strengthening the working relations between the involved parties.
Most importantly, this team of committed individuals in different institutions who on the one hand are convinced about cycling and on the other hand, willing to tear down the barriers between their respective institutions. This is how a project team could be formed with members from two different municipalities, both embedded in a metropolis, with support from the Ministry of Public Works and Transport of Costa Rica. This team persisted despite administrative changes, methodological setbacks, and the delays caused by the pandemic.
In the beginning, it was foreseen to use the Dutch CROW methodology, made by an organization which reunites the Dutch government and businesses to provide guidance on the design, construction, and management of road infrastructure and more specifically, of bicycle infrastructure. Drawn from and enriched by the experiences in the Netherlands, the methodology would prioritize track segments that permit direct and fast connections with a higher level of commercial activities, low slope, and illumination. While this would have led to a large cycling network with relatively low cost, it did not factor in how the social condition of the different populational groups would be affected by the new infrastructure. The characteristics of the neighbourhoods and local planning policies were two other aspects that could not be covered by the CROW methodology.
Therefore, the authorities decided to adapt and tropicalize the methodology in order to account for the specific needs of the vicinities and populations, for example enabling travel by bicycle between the areas of Miravalles and Lomas de Ayarco, which is a common commute of many domestic employees and gardeners.
The tropicalization of the methodology represents an important learning journey and highlights the importance of questioning established methodologies and knowledges to assess whether they are suitable for the local context. In the case of CROW, there were mainly questions of inequalities that could not be integrated and therefore, required an adaption enriched by information gathered in group workshops. Although the application of the methodology “went wrong”, it actually enabled a process of reflection and improvement instead of following the textbook, making the final infrastructure more adequate for the need of the population.
Data is key to many projects. Therefore, the project initially foresaw the documentation of daily trips by workshop participants in an early stage of the project in 2018. They were asked to register their trips on the free app Strava and to take photos of the improvable road conditions they would encounter. Again, the plans had to change as only 20 trips were recorded on Strava, leaving the project team with a very limited database.
Further information on frequently used routes and reasons for this preference, as well as conflict zones and suggestions for improvement could be gathered in group workshops and bilateral talks in Montes de Oca.
In search of complementary quantitative data, Strava was contacted to gain access to the Strava Metro platform which collects aggregated user data on active mobility usage based. In the form of heat maps, the data of 100 trips made in Montes de Oca could be used to enrich the planning process. Additionally, site visits were another important component of the data collection to review the conditions of the infrastructure.
With these different sources of data, the data collection was on more solid feet and left the understanding why data collection is so important for designing cycling infrastructure. Again, data collection was hampered by the changed mobility patterns during the pandemic and had to be carried out differently than planned, but the need to gather further data to improve the constructions in the future became evident. The experience with different types of data planted the seeds for further enhanced, data-based monitoring of the infrastructure through cyclist counts and sensors.
Another challenge the project faces was backlash from local communities. In a context where the road space is usually understood as destined for motorized vehicles, redistributing public space is likely to rise local discontent. Although workshops with local communities were carried out, neighbours complained and institutions were reluctant to support the project. The solution the project team found to this issue was to enhance communication. Therefore, a broad campaign was set up by local consultants to educate the population of the two municipalities about the use and benefits of the cycling paths taking into account all street space users. Due to an electoral communication ban, communication could not be carried out as originally designed. However, an opening event of the first 4 km in Montes de Oca could be realized, 18 press articles covered the story in a first phase and 6 additional articles were published in a second phase. Visually appealing material on the bicycle paths and urban cycling was created and distributed, both in the articles and in flyers to be distributed in the neighborhoods to respond to the negative reactions. Maps representing the new lanes were an important tool to present the results in terms of newly gained access to infrastructure, while virtual educational workshops on urban cycling to get in touch with the communities.
A video that presented the results of the project was another emblematic communicational activity that helped to showcase the success of the project.
Once again, the communication activities had to be flexibly adapted to respond to the changing circumstances. However, the resources developed and the capacities installed during the project will serve as a base for further campaigns that could foster cultural change towards active mobility.
Learning as a team, cooperating, and coordinating has been crucial for the success of this project. It shows that change on a local scale can be reached with limited resources and capacities. After all, with the main aim to position the bicycle as a convenient, safe and efficient means of transport, the project was an innovative approach across institutional, municipal and team boundaries.
In the future, the existing infrastructure and usage will need to be monitored. As future opportunities for infrastructure improvements were foreseen in the project design, this remains a challenge in the hand of the project team. Maintaining the construction and improving it under the same conditions of cross-institutional collaboration will require additional effort. However, the involved parties count on their knowledge and experiences gained during the project and can continue to flexibly react to any challenges that they confront.
Part of the e-mobility team of GIZ India is currently publishing a monthly series of 12 articles in RenewableWatch magazine. The article series is related to various aspects of grid integration of EVs in India and is dealing with various ongoing studies as a part of NDC-TIA India.
Discover our articles!
In order to get access you are asked to sign up to the RenewableWatch magazine newsletter when clicking the link.
8. Never Refuse to Reuse – Second life of electric vehicle batteries
Authors: Bhagyasree (Junior Energy Advisor, NDC TIA – India Component)
Date of publication: July 18, 2022
This eighth article of the series focuses on technical strategies adopted on the batteries to estimate its health after the first life and the retrofitting required on the batteries before being redeployed for a secondary application.
7. Managing Waste – Battery recycling in the Indian scenario
Authors: Toni Zhimomi, Junior Technical Expert, NDC TIA – India Component, GIZ India ; Sushovan Bej, Technical Expert, NDC Transport Initiative for Asia (NDC TIA) – India Component, GIZ India
Date of publication: June 9, 2022
This seventh article of the series focuses on waste management, particularly different battery recycling systems such as organised and unorganised industry operations in the Indian context, and offers recommendations for more effecitve battery recycling guidelines.
6. Powering Up – Understanding traction batteries: technology and standards
Authors: Bhagyasree, Junior Technical Expert, NDC TIA – India Component, GIZ India; Sushovan Bej, Technical Expert, NDC Transport Initiative for Asia (NDC TIA) – India Component, GIZ India
Date of publication: April 27, 2022
This sixth article of the series focuses on battery related technology and standards such as key characteristics and chemistires of batteires as well as standards which could be adopted by key players in the ecosystem.
5. Intelligent Approach – Smart charging strategies for electric vehicles
Authors: Shweta Kalia, Junior Technical Expert, NDC Transport Initiative for Asia (NDC TIA)- India Component, GIZ India; Bhagyasree, Junior Technical Expert, NDC TIA – India Component, GIZ India & Dr Indradip Mitra, Team Leader, E-Mobility, Indo-German Energy Programme, and Country Coordinator for NDC Transport Initiative for Asia (NDC TIA)- India Component, GIZ India
Date of publication: March 31, 2022
This fifth article of the series discusses the selection and classification of smart charging strategies for electric vehicles to be best suited for the needs of key stakeholders.
4. Charging Forward – Role of smart charging in the EV ecosystem
Authors: Shweta Kalia, Junior Technical Expert, NDC Transport Initiative for Asia (NDC TIA)- India Component, GIZ India; Toni Zhimomi, Junior Technical Expert, NDC TIA – India Component, GIZ India & Dr Indradip Mitra, Team Leader, E-Mobility, Indo-German Energy Programme, and Country Coordinator for NDC Transport Initiative for Asia (NDC TIA)- India Component, GIZ India
Date of publication: February 23, 2022
The fourth article of the series discusses the role of smart charging in the EV ecosystem.
3. Information is Wealth
Author: Sahana L, Junior Technical Expert, NDC-TIA India Component, GIZ
Date of publication: January 24, 2022
This article deals with the implementation of communication protocols in the Indian EV ecosystem.
2. Crucial Communication – Need for communication protocols for electric mobility ecosystem
Author: Sahana L, Junior Technical Expert, NDC-TIA India Component, GIZ
Date of publication: January 6, 2022
This article encapsulates the functions and roles of EV related communication protocols and the status quo on communication protocols applicable in India.
1. Two Good – Need for energy and transport sector coupling
Authors: Sahana L, Junior Technical Expert, NDC-TIA India Component, GIZ & Dr. Indradip Mitra, Team Leader, E-Mobility, Indo-German Energy Programme, and Country Coordinator for NDC-TIA India Component, GIZ India
Date of publication: December 9, 2021
The first article of the series stresses the need for stronger sector coupling between the energy and transport subsectors, making e-mobility a central element in the necessary green transition of the economy.
In China, the NDC Transport Initiative for Asia (NDC-TIA) are working with seven partner organisations to support the development of a national transport GHG and air pollutants “double peaking” strategy. In a new series, NDC-TIA partners offer insights into lessons learned through the country components in India, China and Vietnam. The first blog identifies four lessons learned on effective collaboration to advance China’s NDCs and raise ambition for transport decarbonisation. In summary:
1. Understand and engage the right stakeholders
The NDC-TIA connects public- and private-sector stakeholders through cross-agency multistakeholder platforms. The government ministries’ varying objectives can be challenging, so it is crucial to identify ministry needs, motivations and constraints, to tailor offerings, add value to each stakeholder, and develop frameworks that best align with China’s NDCs.
2. Transport decarbonization requires a systemic approach
While China’s 1+N policy system aligns with its NDCs, there are barriers in integrating transport decarbonization goals with other sectors and at the local level. The key to meeting climate goals is to gain decarbonization buy-in across local governments, through long-term engagement, to establish policies that match regional needs. The NDC-TIA’s Council Report also reflects the need to coordinate with the energy sector to meet China’s 2030 and 2060 goals.
3. Look for underlying data gaps
Through various strategies, including analysis support, identifying capacity gaps, and coordination across ministries, the NDC-TIA has focused on resolving the lack of baseline data on decarbonization pathways to achieve China’s enhanced ambition in decarbonizing transport. This is critical both to bridging the gap between national and provincial policy design, and establishing an emission baseline.
4. Equitable transport access requires integrated planning
While China’s 14th Five-Year Plan (2021-2025) prioritizes zero-emission passenger and freight transport, focusing on individual vehicles does not address income and access variability. Improving transport equity, such as providing more efficient, accessible and safe mobility options, will remain a priority in coming years.
Read more details about our various insights from and activities within Ministries and Provinces in China here.
This blog was originally published on TheCityFix on July 28, 2022, written by Maggie Dennis, WRI, and Yiqian Zhang, WRI, with inputs from Lulu Xue, Hui He, Sebastian Ibold, Urda Eichhorst, and Angel Cortez.
On the 22nd of July 2022, Deputy Prime Minister Le Van Thanh signed an approval of Viet Nam’s action plan on green energy transformation, under Decision No. 876/QD-TTg. This approval is a significant part of the Government’s efforts to realise its commitments at COP26, where Prime Minister Pham Minh Chinh pledged that Viet Nam would strive to achieve net-zero emissions by 2050. A key element of this action plan is thus to reduce carbon and methane emissions in the transport sector.
Accordingly, the overall objective of the strategy is to develop a green transport system that contributes to the goal of net zero emissions by 2050. In particular, the decision outlines a specific target by 2050, in which 100% of road transport, including public transport vehicles, should be electric or use green energy, and proper charging infrastructures that provide green energy should be established nationwide.
Furthermore, the transformation roadmap of urban traffic includes the following targets:
The NDC Transport Initiative for Asia (NDC-TIA) Viet Nam component has supported the Ministry of Transport to develop the Action Plan on green energy transformation, by strengthening the national legal framework and contributing their expertise to the implementation. Additionally, the project assists the Ministry in creating the national e-mobility roadmap, as well as developing economic and technical guidelines for e-buses, across Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh city, and the national framework. This will lay the groundwork for the deployment of electric vehicles beyond the pilot phase to support Viet Nam in fulfilling its commitments under the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and the goal of reducing methane emissions.
NDC-TIA is part of the International Climate Initiative (IKI). The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) support this initiative on the basis of a decision adopted by the German Bundestag. It supports China, India, and Viet Nam as well as regional and global decarbonisation strategies to increase the ambition around low-carbon transport. In Viet Nam, the project’s implementing organisation is GIZ and partner institutions include World Resources Institute (WRI) and International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT). Viet Nam Ministry of Transport (MOT) is the Lead executive organisation and the Department of Environment (DOE) is the project owner. For more information on the project, please visit NDC Transport Initiative for Asia.
GIZ along with IIT Bombay is organizing the e-launch of the third report “Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure and its Grid Integration in India: Status Quo, Critical Analysis and Way Forward” developed under the study “Integration of Electric Vehicles Charging Infrastructure with Distribution Grid: Global Review, India’s Gap Analyses and Way Forward”. A consortium led by IIT Bombay along with Florence School of Regulation (FSR), Technical University Denmark (DTU), Cardiff University and Universidad Pontificia Comillas has undertaken this study. This study has been carried out under the purview of GIZ’s Nationally Determined Contribution-Transport Initiative for Asia (NDC-TIA) project, in close collaboration and under the guidance of NITI Aayog.
This specific report, the third in the series of four reports of this study is focused on a detailed analysis and documentation of EV charging infrastructure and its grid integration in Indian EV ecosystem covering the current status analysis of various aspects including EV charging technology, standards and protocols applicable in India, grid integration status of EVs, stakeholders in Indian EV ecosystem, policy and regulatory matters related to EV charging infrastructure (both at central and state level). Moreover, gap analysis in EV charging infrastructure and its grid integration in Indian EV ecosystem is also presented in this report.
Event start and end times (in IST format): 16.15 hr – 17.15 hr IST
This tutorial provides guidance on how to use the Low Emissions Analysis Platform (LEAP) to create a model of projected GHG emissions in the transport sector.
This includes an overview of GHG emission projections, an introduction to the LEAP software and an exercise to develop a basic transport model in LEAP including developing an account of historic emissions, a baseline scenario and mitigation scenarios to reflect two emissions reduction measures.
LEAP, the Low Emissions Analysis Platform, is a widely-used software tool that is mostly used for energy policy analysis and climate change mitigation assessment developed at the Stockholm Environment Institute. The training video and the presentation explain how to use it in the transport sector.
This training video is NOT an official training video for LEAP and is not associated with the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) in any way. The training video and manual were developed independently by Ricardo Energy and Environment with support from the GIZ project Advancing Transport Climate Strategies in Rapidly Motorising Countries (TraCS), financed by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Nuclear Safety and Consumer Protection’s International Climate Initiative (IKI).
Daisy Leonor Jaime’s driver’s license certifies her as a brave woman. She has been driving buses since she was 16 years old, and today, at 48, she has completed 9 years as a driver in Bogotá’s public transportation system.
“My job is as bus operator. I started working as a Bus driver. Since then, I have moved up to Buseton, Padron, and now, to “Alimentador” (these are the different bus types operating in Bogota’s public transportation system)“. Says Daisy, one of the 12 drivers working on the recently launched M-route run by the firm SUMA in Bogota’s Tunjuelito district, which is operated exclusively by women.
With her work as a driver, she raised her two children and gave them what she lacked: education up to the university. “I learned to drive in Bogotá’s hills. Nowadays, it is more normal to see a woman driving a bus, (but) when I was 16, everyone looked at me in amazement, especially because I learned on those old buses. It was complicated, but I liked it,” she says.
Today, women can be found at the wheel of Bogota’s Public Transportation System’s Buses and TransMilenio’s articulated and bi-articulated buses. However, the reality is that there are only a few of them. According to TransMilenio figures, out of the 23,965 drivers in the system, only 328 are women: 1.4%.
As Daisy, Betany Moreno is also part of this small group. Betany, a 26 years old single mother, also took on the challenge of being in charge of a bus. “At 17, I started driving a small truck. My actual job was as a warehouse assistant, but I also helped with deliveries. I’ve worked on many things; I even sold sausages on the street. I have had many jobs. But SUMA allowed me to enter with the driver’s license I had. I hope to be here for a long time”, Betany says.
Daisy Leonor Jaime Silva, 48 years old “Before working with operators, I worked in traditional (non formalised) transportation: I started when I was 16. So, I have a lot of experience. I joined the SUMA nine years ago. I passed the tests and requirements made by the company, so here I am. I am no longer afraid of driving or anything like that because, thanks to God, I have a lot of experience. My family is very supportive and tells me, “You are a warrior. Go ahead”. The users? They have received us very well. When girls and boys look at us, say, “oh! a woman, we are safer, we are confident,” and congratulate us”.”
Betany Moreno, 26 years old, “I entered the system because my father worked as a driver: he was an operator in another company. I was very impressed to see his schedule and flexibility. That is why I was motivated to apply for that company. I joined the company about a year ago and started in minibuses, a smaller type of bus. I moved on and I am currently on the standard bus. At the moment, my schedule is in the morning. I start at 3:00 – 3:30 a.m., depending on the schedule, we get 8 hours, or sometimes we get periods of 5 or 6 hours. I have a little girl, and it has been hard for us because we live alone, but I have time to spend with her, take her to school, and pick her up. It has been great to share time with her. My family has always been there for me. They tell me that I am fearless and a warrior. I have never had any problem with the users (as them being rude to me or something like that). On the contrary, they always tell me how cool it is to see such a young woman doing this”.
Why does it matter?
For a woman to have the right to work as a driver in a public transport system is not a ‘whim’, it is a life-changing opportunity. According to the study ‘Inclusion of women in driving tasks in Santiago’s public transport system’, carried out by the Transport Gender Lab of Santiago (Chile), the incorporation of women in bus companies of Trasantiago (Red Metropolitana de Movilidad) has had a substantial impact on their economic autonomy.
“The vast majority of female drivers indicated in the interviews and focus groups that their economic situation has improved considerably. They are able to pay debts, save and access goods previously unaffordable, such as buying a car or a house, going on vacation, sending their children to a better school or giving them what they need in material terms”, says the study. It also highlights that driving can be a formal employment option for this population with poor employment and salary conditions: in Bogota, while unemployment among men is 14.1%, for women is 17.%.
The interviewed female drivers consider that they have been brave and have broken barriers and prejudices (…) which generates a high sense of pride for them.Transport Gender Lab
But why is it so difficult to see women behind the wheel? And, why do women like Daisy and Betany make up a mere 1.4%? Marina Moscoso, technical director at DESPACIO, gender and mobility expert, and co-author of the study “Women in Bogotá’s Transport: the result”, identifies four types of barriers: individual, environmental, access and permanence, and organisational.
Hiring more women is not the only solution; we must change the predominantly male culture.
Women in transportation in Bogotá
“From our upbringing, we have gender stereotypes that affect how we project ourselves and what we want to do. There are values associated with what we know as “The sexual division of labour,” where we believe there are men’s and women’s jobs. These notions are reinforced at school and in the family. For example, if the father goes to fix the car on Saturday, he takes the boy, not the girl. These are individual and social barriers”. She adds that these barriers, in turn, feed the access barriers: that is, they do not allow a woman to have the training to access this type of work.
“For example, to drive a TransMilenio biarticulated bus, you need a specific type of licence for larger vehicles, and most women do not have it,” says Moscoso, noting that even when women who meet the requirements encounter organisational barriers: there are no inclusive or permanent vacancies, the work environments are not safe, there are dynamics of harassment, or the schedules do not adjust to the care roles that fall on women.
For that reason, cases like Daisy and Betany’s are 1 out of 100 in Bogota
However, according to TransMilenio, there are strategies to assess the barriers. The company said that employment fairs are organised to support local concessionaires in recruiting staff. Also, a Seeding Plan is “one of the mechanisms to facilitate women’s access to the system’s job offers”.
Operators are required to have a primary school degree, a C1, C2 and C3 type license and at least one year of certified experience in cargo vehicles of at least 1.5 tons or passenger transport vehicles. The Seeding Plan provides driving training and makes the requirements more flexible. They require only a C1 type license, one year of certified experience as a vehicle driver and a primary school certificate.
In addition to these strategies, Chile has implemented state-funded scholarships and an annual award for the best female driver, increasing the number of women drivers in public transport from 100 in 2013 to more than 1,000 by 2022. This share is expected to grow thanks to new policies requiring a quota of female participation in transport companies’ operations.
Paola Tapia, former Chile’s Minister of Transport and current director of Santiago’s Metropolitan Transport Board, says that this benefits everyone: “To begin, women’s performance is better than men’s because they help reduce traffic accidents, generate more harmonious working environments and procure friendlier attention, which passengers appreciate. In addition, they develop self-esteem, as shown in a study produced by the Inter-American Development Bank in 2018, underlining that in the Chilean system, women value the job stability, career, income, and the independence that this activity brings”.
Yet, for Moscoso, it is crucial to remark: “Although there may be arguments to say women are better drivers, the main point (to recruit them as such) is that women also have the right to work in these sectors and access better economic opportunities. Otherwise, we are at risk of creating stereotypes”.
A great opportunity
Little is known that the arrival of 1485 new electric buses to Bogotá -1061 of which are already running- together with the national policies to promote public transport electrification, will, over a five-year horizon, generate a nationwide demand for 934 technicians and 10,653 trained drivers for electric vehicles. If the conditions are created, many of these jobs could be for women. This is the conclusion of the study: Diagnosis of capacities for designing a human talent training program for promoting mass transportation systems based on electric buses, financed by the German Cooperation Agency in Colombia (GIZ) and carried out by DESPACIO and KAPTA.
According to María Fernanda Ramírez, Sustainable Mobility Leader at DESPACIO, the study evaluates which vacancies will be generated throughout the electric public transport value chain, from e-bus procurement to daily operation. “There are three points where we need more people and training: drivers, maintenance technicians and those who would tune and prepare the vehicle”.
During this study, a partnership with the National Learning Service-SENA was made to complement the programs and guarantee women’s access through levelling programs while addressing gender inequality. “There are three levels of electricity operation courses. Many times, women do not have the knowledge to start at the first level because these are contents that have been traditionally male-oriented. So we must devise a ‘level zero’, which is useful for both women and men,” explains Ramírez.
One of the industries with the greatest labour inequality for women is the automotive industry. Cultural reasons and stereotypes are part of the glass ceiling that must be broken.DESPACIO, KAPTA
Alejandro Ceballos, Technical Advisor for GIZ’s TRANSfer III project, points out that the document is already in the hands of the National Government for them to adjust and implement the program. “It is the perfect opportunity. This technological transition will require more labour; therefore, the new labour force should be women,” said Ceballos.
Moscoso comments the current moments are advantageous since, due to the novelty of the technology, the field is even for both men and women. “Not so much previous knowledge presents itself as a difference between genders. Men don’t have as much prior knowledge, putting them ahead of women. The field is even; it is the opportunity for men and women to enter this new sector or market”.
ANA PUENTES – journalist for the newspaper El Tiempo
*With support from Loren Valbuena
On Twitter: @soypuentes
Translated by TRANSfer III Colombia, from the original article in Spanish:
With the support of GIZ, the Colombian Ministry of Transportation and Learning National Service, are committed to the technical training of women and men to drive and operate electric bus fleets.
The main cities of Colombia have strengthened their public transportation by betting on e-mobility. During the last three years, the main Colombian cities have integrated many e-buses into their fleets; hence, Bogota integrated 879 buses, Medellin 69 buses, and Cali 36, showing significant progress regionally.
This rapid increase supposes a challenge hence achieving large electric buses deployment requires building enough human capacities to drive and operate these vehicles. Accordingly, maintenance services and driving skills will have to progressively turn their focus on electric technologies to cover the growing demand.
The new conditions also suppose an excellent opportunity to close gender gaps at the operational levels of the transport sector by opening participation options for women throughout a value chain traditionally dominated by men, which is vital since lately, the Colombian National Administrative Department of Statistics, DANE, has called into attention the low access to economic and employment opportunities for women all over the Colombian Economy.
According to DANE, during the first quarter of 2021 (January – March), unemployment among women reached 21% in comparison to 12%, while the values for the same period in 2020 were 16.4% and 9.8%, respectively, showing that the pandemic’s effects over women employment were more critical than for men.
Considering that the transition to mass electric mobility could become an employment booster, aligning public policies and resources could lead to a significant generation of new jobs with high female participation. A strategy to reach these goals must consider:
Accordingly, the project TRANSfer III in Colombia sponsored by BMUV, structured a capacity-building component called “Employability with a gender perspective in transportation” to establish the training programs and strategies for e-buses technicians and operators, including a strong gender perspective following a dual approach:
To meet this goal, GIZ supported the Ministry of Transportation with a consultancy study led by the firms Fundación Despacio and K@pta to design a technicians and operators training program with a gender-inclusive strategy for public transportation systems. The ministry and GIZ formed a strategic alliance with the National Learning Service of Colombia – SENA to include in their curriculum and employability platform the content necessary to train technicians on e-mobility, focusing on improving women’s job access.
Elizabeth Ortiz – Sector Dynamizer of SENA’s Curriculum Management Group, says that the consultancy was able to identify the local gaps in electromobility training with a gender equity approach by reviewing and learning from international experiences while considering the local market requirements and potential demand.
“SENA has training centers that handle electric technology at the level of light duty vehicles. At buses level, there has been an approach to companies that so far has only translated into a shallow immersion by instructors into the subject. So far SENA does not have programs designed for transit vehicles. That is the next step starting from with the results from working with GIZ”.Elizabeth Ortiz – Sector Dynamizer of SENA’s Curriculum Management Group
SENA does not currently include in its training plans the repair and operation of electric buses. Therefore, is strategic to work with partners such as fleet operators, OEMs, and Management Entities, to acquire new technical knowledge to form instructors that could replicate knowledge and act as multipliers. This strategy will guarantee that the contents taught will be those required by the productive sector.
The curriculum proposed by the project is divided into different levels of training according to the experience and participant’s competences:
On gender equity, Paula Pinilla, Adviser, at the Ministry of Transportation, highlights that the consultancy is relevant for the sector because the Ministry’s sectoral gender committee seeks to close gender gaps, especially in women’s employability.
The consultancy helped identify the difficulties women face in entering the electric mobility value chain and propose actions to overcome these barriers of access and permanence, organizational and environmental barriers, among others, to be implemented jointly by the National Government and strategic allies.
“The consultancy identified organizational, environmental, personal, access, and permanence barriers for women employability on electro mobility. This was an essential learning experience because it is not enough to make huge calls for women to operate or drive the electric buses, but to think about the permanence of these women ensuring the compatibility within their personal lives and work routines”.Paula Pinilla, Gender and Differential Approach Advisor at Environmental Affairs and Sustainable Development Group. Colombian Ministry of Transportation.
The lessons learned from the consultancy are that beyond convening women for this type of training, motivational strategies should be generated, with the support of the Presidential Council for Women’s Equity, the district and municipal women’s secretaries and the municipal mayors’ offices, in order to motivate and accompany women to participate in sectors and areas of work traditionally assigned to men and contribute to the transformation of stereotypes and achieve the effective enjoyment of rights and economic autonomy.
The training of women and men in electromobility will allow the massification of public transportation systems based on this technology to mitigate greenhouse gases and comply with the NDC from the transportation sector in line with the Sustainable Development Goals, especially Goal 5 – Gender Equality, 11 – Sustainable Cities and Communities and 13 – Climate Action.
The TRANSfer project is implemented by GIZ and funded by the International Climate Initiative (IKI) of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety.
In its second NDC from 2020 to 2025, the government of Argentina has increased its climate ambition by driving and recognising the urgency and priority of the issue in the design and implementation of public policies, as well as achieving a cross-cutting involvement. This includes the transport and mobility sector, responsible for approximately 14% of the country’s total CO2 emissions.
In order to strengthen concrete climate change mitigation measures in the sector at both national and local level, we at GIZ consider it vital to promote efficient mobility and transport planning in Argentinean cities.
That is why in May we launched the Support Programme for the Elaboration of Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMPs) in Argentinean Municipalities. This ambitious initiative will last 20 weeks, during which we will bring together local authorities from 20 municipalities involved in urban planning to provide them with the skills and knowledge necessary to develop and implement SUMPs in their localities.
This activity is framed within the actions of the Country Plan, developed through the EUROCLIMA+ programme. One of the actions agreed with the government of Argentina consists of the Development of Local Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans.
The Support Programme for the Development of SUMPs in Argentinean Municipalities aims to strengthen institutional capacities to improve urban mobility, reduce negative environmental impacts, and take advantage of the benefits derived from sustainable mobility.
The course is structured with a synchronous e-learning instance, a synchronous learning instance and a third instance of specialised tutorial support.
It is structured in 4 consecutive phases following the SUMP methodology developed by MobiliseYourCity: Preparation and analysis, Strategy development, Planning of measures, Implementation and monitoring.
The modules and contents will be taken both synchronously and a-synchronously, in which participants will be able to complete the activities and review the contents according to their own time, as well as participate in live sessions to receive support from the tutors.
In addition to providing them with materials and contact with speakers with extensive experience in the SUMP methodology, participants have a discussion forum to exchange experiences among themselves, as well as tasks to implement the tools in their own municipalities.
In addition to GIZ and the Ministry of Transport, other participants include the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development, the Sustainable Urban Mobility Platform in Latin America of the EUROCLIMA+ Programme, the Centre for Sustainable Development GEO of the Faculty of Economic Sciences (UBA), the Asociación Sustentar and Rupprecht Consult.
The course will conclude in September 2022. As a final deliverable, participants will produce a Draft Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan for their municipalities. Based on this document and the tasks developed, as well as other geographical, mobility and socio-economic criteria of their cities, 10 proposals will be selected to participate in the next phases of the action, in which they will receive technical support to develop and implement SUMPs and integrate the gender perspective in inclusive mobility pilot projects.
This programme is part of one of the 5 actions that are part of the Argentina Country Plan, developed through the EUROCLIMA+ programme in conjunction with other implementing agencies and the national authorities. Each of these actions is implemented autonomously, but there are opportunities to strengthen coordination and complementarity between them, which address issues such as climate empowerment, just energy transition, international climate finance, as well as rural and indigenous women for a climate justice.
The EUROCLIMA+ project is commissioned by the European Union and the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development.
Countries in South-East Europe face obstacles when moving towards with sustainable mobility practices and overall decarbonization of their transport systems. In particular, city administrations face challenges in integrating sustainable transport and urban mobility into the municipal strategic documents of energy and climate planning, and recently, addressing these concerns has become one of their priorities.
Learning about new technologies and applications in Berlin
Jointly, municipal representatives from the South-East Europe (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo*, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia, and Turkey) participated in-person at the Transport and Climate Change Week in Berlin from May 10 to 13, 2022.
With the aim of learning more about European best practices, all participants visited EUREF Campus in Berlin to experience firsthand efforts of EUREF Campus on developing an real life laboratory for the shift to clean energy and future mobility, with themed discussions with ‘ubitricity’ and ‘Inno2Grid’. It was a great opportunity to learn about the application of new models and technologies through practical examples.
While participating in the Transport and Climate Change Week Berlin programme, participants attended discussion on ‘Common Challenges, Joint Solutions – Multilateralism for climate action in transport’ lead by ‘AGORA Verkehrswende’. Followed by a fishbowl discussion on ‘Setting Policy Direction for the Freight Transport Sector’, presentation on ‘Global Impulses for Sustainable Mobility set up by ‘Correspondents Club’ and finally a discussion on ‘Shaping net-zero cities with active and public transport’ with the ‘MobiliseYourCity Partnership’. Overall, an overly rich experience shared and discussed amongst regional practitioners.
South-East Europe Day at #TransportWeek2022
According to the participants’ feedback, the exchange of experiences reached its peak on the final day dedicated to the presentation of their urban mobility experiences, namely the ‘South-East Europe Conference Day’ – a regional city exchange and panel discussion with the subject of ‘Integrated energy, transport and climate planning’ organised by Open Regional Fund for South-East Europe – Energy, Transport and Climate Protection (ORF ETC).
While the first part of the programme was important to set the scene, strengthen the regional cohesion and approach on initially technical solutions that could potentially be contextualized from EUREF Campus experience, and more of the policy driven changes and expectations discussed from Berlin Conference Day programme agenda, the second part was entirely attributed to the regional approaches and developments. So, the South-East Europe Conference Day took place on the May 13, 2022, an all-day hybrid event with global reach on participation.
The event was initiated by a discussion on European city approaches, such as urban mobility measures in Berlin presented by Martin Lutz (Head of Air Quality Management, Berlin City Environmental Administration) and Energy and climate planning at local level presented by Matej Gojčić (Deputy Director for Development, Development Agency of Ljubljana Urban Region in Slovenia). The discussion then followed with Fabio Tomasi (Projects Development Unit Manager, Innovation and Projects Institute, AREA SCIENCE PARK, Italy) who shared experience on ‘Harmonization of energy and sustainable urban mobility planning (SECAP & SUMP).
A regional panel discussion was set up with special invitees such as Anuela Ristani (Deputy Mayor Municipality of Tirana), Mira Radenović (Member of the City Council, City of Novi Sad, Serbia), Ayşen Erdincler, Head of working group for SECAP preparation, Director of the Environmental protection department of the Istanbul metropolitan municipality, Turkey), Maia Tskhvaradze (Ministry of Environmental Protection and Agriculture of Georgia), Sylwia Słomiak (Foundation Forum Energii, Poland) and Fabio Tomasi (AREA SCIENCE PARK, Italy).
A vibrant mix of themes, speakers, presenters and panelists provided the foundation for an enthusiastic and collaborative atmosphere throughout the day. A respectable regional city exchange and panel discussion took place, that outlined the critical views on current state of affairs and a craving hopes for a collective way forward in decarbonization agenda.
Regional cohesion and sharing of best practices
Overall, there was a consensus that integration horizontally and vertically in terms of decision making, policy development as well as various themes of strategic planning are a must. Additionally, regional cohesion and sharing of best experiences needs to be put in practice to avoid the repetitive ‘reinventing of the wheel’ approach.
A quote from the presenter Matej Gojičič illustrates best one of the regional priorities and needs:
The railway system should be the backbone of public transport in the region. To achieve this, you need integration of public transport. (…) Improvement of the railway system is something we have to do first.Matej Gojičič, Development Agency of Ljubljana Urban Region (Slovenia), Deputy Director for Development
According to Martin Lutz “increased involvement of stakeholders and civil society is essential to ensure strong coherence between the different planning activities.” In conclusion, a quote from Anuela Ristani highlighted the importance of having the right mindset to decarbonisation of urban mobility:
How you picture future of your city is important and you should ask yourself whether such picture has traffic as the main element of your work or does it have quality of life in focus.Anuela Ristani, Municipaltiy of Tirana, Deputy Mayor
The Open Regional Fund for South-East Europe – Energy, Transport and Climate Protection (ORF-ETC) focuses on developing regional capabilities in planning and implementing decarbonisation measures in the energy, climate and transport sectors. The project is co-funded by the European Union and the Federal German Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ). Under the name “EU4 Energy Transition: Covenant of Mayors in the Western Balkans and Turkey”, the European Union has been co-funding the ORF-ETC since 2021. In Turkey, the “EU4Energy Transition” project is funded by the EU and implemented by the Lithuanian Central Project Management Agency (CPMA).
Gender visibility means discussions, conversations, like the network offers, webinars, involving members and making them talk to us and share their experiences.Dr. Sheilah Gaabucyan-Napalang (Assistant Secretary for Planning and Project Development, Department of Transportation, Government of the Philippines)
The Connect & Chat Series
Active exchange among members is particularly important for a network. For this reason, the Women on the Move Network launched the Connect & Chat Meeting series at the beginning of 2022. The series of one-hour meetings will take place every second or third Wednesday of the month. The sessions will include short inputs from inspiring women in the field and an open discussion with the audience.
By Mikaylah Cruz
When we’re planning for transport, people experience transport differently… It is important that we understand this unique lived experience.Dr. Derlie Mateo-Babiano, Convenor of Women in Transport Leadership
When thinking of transport infrastructure, people usually have this normate template of a 6-foot tall, white able-bodied male, which leaves a fatal impact on marginalized sectors of society such as women and the disabled. On 15 June 2022, we invited Dr. Derlie Mateo-Babiano, who is a convenor for the Women in Transport Leadership network as well as Assistant Dean (Diversity and Inclusion) and Associate Professor in Urban Planning for the Melbourne School of Design, to talk about gender equality in the transport sector. She discussed the importance of inclusive planning in cities and communities as this would benefit not only women, but society as a whole. There was a Q&A section in which other network members shared their thoughts, comments, and questions, the full session is available to be watched here.
Dr. Derlie talked about how each person experiences transport differently and that transport is a unique lived experience which transport planners need to understand to incorporate into their planning. She also noted that transport is not homogenous at all, because it is not only about the riding environment, but also includes the walking and waiting environment. It is important that we continue to work towards a more inclusive environment especially in the transport sector, but this cannot be done without collective voices to advocate for change such as networks, inclusive cities, and communities.
Her ambitious work shows that taking into consideration the diverse needs of every single person in turn can support a more inclusive, sustainable future. She left everyone with the question: “What do you think is one thing that you could do in your own city/community to support inclusive planning and design, and help shape more inclusive and resilient communities for women and girls?”
By Mikaylah Cruz and Gwen Schmidt
Seeing the freedom of cycling, that it can bring you anywhere, is really empowering, not just for women, for everyone! But for women especially, the number one concern will always be safety. So, for that freedom to be extended we need that kind of safety and infrastructure.Keisha Mayuga, Urban Planner at the World Bank
Due to the pandemic, people were given limited options for transportation. One of these included cycling, which in many regions is seen to be a quite ‘dangerous’ activity for a woman. On April 6, 2022, we invited Ms. Keisha Mayuga to our third Connect & Chat session, to discuss cycling and its value especially for women. She shared her experience on advocacy for active transport and promoting bike lanes as well as how to garner attention from those capable of making that advocacy happen, such as local communities and governments. Keisha helped set up bike lanes in the Philippines, starting from citizen-led pop-up bike lanes which then turned into permanent ones. Cycling became more than just a sport and people in the Philippines, especially women, started to see its value and the freedom it can provide.
In the open discussion with the attendees of the session, it was discussed how participation in active transportation can change the lives of women, but also which aspects are of highest concern for them. Safety and the right infrastructure to provide that security to feel confident enough to walk and cycle are the key factors determining the participation of women in active transport. She also stressed that if anyone wanted to help in this advocacy, it is important to build a community or network in which women can support each other, because jointly it is more attainable to make a change. Moreover, having champions in the local government and businesses to support the initiatve plays an important role in implementing these projects.
Her ambitious work with the government shows that anyone determined to make a change can pave their way through advocacy and that women truly have to work together if they want to attain positive change when it comes to their daily commute.
By Hanna Röttinger
A team with employees from diverse educational backgrounds provides us with essential knowledge for a successful implementation of our transport projects.Mega Kusumaningkatma, Research consultant at the ICCT
In order to achieve gender equality in transport, we need more women employed in the sector. On 9 March 2022, we discussed with Ms. Mega Kusumaningkatma the question of how to engage more women in transport and some opportunities this career path offers. As a woman with an academic background in economics rather than in programs typically associated with transport such as engineering, she herself experienced difficulties starting in the sector. This was a concern she overcame with the help of a mentor who provided strong support and encouragement.
With her experiences as a young professional in transport, she now wants to inspire more women to join this field. The transport sector is so diverse and therefore the workforce needs to be too. We must work with people from various backgrounds–including economics, engineering, linguistics, materials chemistry, political science–to understand how we can better deliver a transport system that is socially, environmentally, and economically sustainable for everybody.
Her ambitious work shows that it is a viable option for women to join the transport sector and become part of the transformation towards a more sustainable transport systems.
By Hanna Röttinger and Evhan Feliciano
Including female workforce is a process we must start now. We learn along the way, accept hiccups, and share our lessons learned with each otherMs. Dipti Mahapatro (General Manager (P&A) Capital Region Urban Transport (CRUT))
Our first meeting on 31 January 2022 focused on the experience from gender-sensitive public transport reforms. For the discussion Ms. Dipti Mahapatro (General Manager for Personnel and Administration at the Capital Region Urban Transport (CRUT)) shared her experience with developing a public bus system with the goal to provide safe and accessible transport services for all citizens in the region of Bhubaneswar, India. During the implementation of the project she faced numerous hurdles, especially regarding safety issues for women working in public transport. They knew that to employ females, it is essential to gain their trust and include safety measures. With making safety for employees their highest priority, the organization set up cameras, proper lighting to avoid dark spaces and individual trainings, strengthening the confidence of their female staff. Due to her ambition of making women (and all members of the LGBTQIA+ community) feel safe, now more than 40% of CRUT employees are non-male. By offering them employment, women have the chance to receive their own income and become financially more independent.
Her ambitious work with the government is a great example on how important it is that women have a seat at the decision table to build a gender-inclusive infrastructure.
Find out more about the network and its ambition to transform transport in Asia: Promoting gender equality in Asia – Changing Transport (changing-transport.org)
Become a Network member by joining the LinkedIn Group: Women on the Move: Transforming Transport in Asia | Groups | LinkedIn
Sign up here to stay connected and receive invitations to our future events:
In the framework of the elaboration of its National Policy for Sustainable Urban Mobility (NUMP), the government of Uruguay presented the Guide for Electric Urban Mobility in Uruguay. This document will provide practical guidance in the decision making and definition of electromobility projects, both in subnational governments and in the private sector.
Its launch frames as one of the applicable instruments for cities, companies and civil society that will support the implementation of the NUMP Uruguay, developed in the framework of the EUROCLIMA+ programme with the technical support of GIZ.
This guide aims for departments to take it as an input and include electromobility in the design of their mobility and urban planning policies.”Fitzgerald Cantero Piali, National Director of Energy of the Ministry of Industry, Energy and Mining
The guide aims to provide departmental governments with everything they need to promote sustainable urban mobility, including electric urban mobility, as well as to develop capacities at the national level and among all stakeholders involved.
To this end, multiple topics are addressed to achieve comprehensive coverage of electric mobility in the country: a state of the art of the current situation of electromobility, recommendations and case studies, as well as business models. It covers different aspects such as mobility of persons, freight transport, charging infrastructure and battery management.
As a complement to the Guide, it also offers a Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) analysis tool to be evaluated by initiatives with an interest in electromobility and to analyze their profitability.
The event was attended by representatives of the European Union, GIZ and the inter-ministerial group working on the elaboration of the NUMP Uruguay: Ministries of Industry, Energy and Mining (MIEM); Environment (MA); Housing and Territorial Planning (MVOT); Economy and Finance (MEF); and Transport and Public Works (MTOP); as well as the Office of Planning and Budget (OPP).
For the European Union, the issue of electric mobility is very important. We are interested in sustainable mobility and it is aligned with the themes of the European Green Pac.”Marta Ramírez, EU Delegate in Uruguay
Currently, there are favorable conditions for electric mobility in Uruguay: 98% of the energy grid in Uruguay is renewable, there are 55 electric taxis in Montevideo and the first electric route in Latin America with 50 charging stations throughout the country.
You can access the Guide on Electric Urban Mobility in Uruguay (in Spanish) at this link.
By 2050, Africa is expected to be home to 2.5 billion people – many of whom will live in cities where they will increasingly use motorised transport. Even the countries are heterogenous, they have one thing in common, often already today’s transport systems cannot cope with this enormous growth.
This means that transport-related greenhouse gas emissions will increase rapidly. According to forecasts (SLOCAT 2021), these could amount to more than 1 gigaton of CO2 in 2050, only considering the transport sector. This would repeat a development that has been observed in Asia and especially in China since the 1980s and calls into question the achievement of the Paris climate goals.
At the same time, an extreme vulnerability to the consequences of climate change is already clearly noticeable in Africa today. While mobility of people and goods is a prerequisite for economic development, non-sustainable transport systems are at the same time a threat and may hinder achieving the SDGs and lead to several problems.
The current social discourse in Africa is shaped by the need for economic development and challenged by strong social inequalities. State institutions often lack capacities and well-trained personnel with respect to the challenges ahead. International support is concentrated on the few institutions and partners that are often overstretched to translate support into concrete action.
Against this background, the opportunity for leapfrogging towards climate-friendly, sustainable mobility has hardly been debated so far. That’s why it was widely welcomed that policymakers, planners, entrepreneurs, and researchers from more than 20 African countries came together online during the Africa Conference Day of Transport Week 2022 to discuss how to make transport more climate friendly on the continent.
Six month ahead of COP27 in Egypt, high-level representatives from various African countries (watch the recordings of country spotlights and the high-level panel) emphasized, that the climate conference will be quite important for outlining a vision for the continent. For example, Transport Minister Moges from Ethiopia shared her vision for sustainable transport:
Especially African nations shall devote themselves and invest their time money and resources in safe and sustainable mobility. (…) We have to clearly indicate in our policies, strategies and plans that creating a sustainable environment through sustainable mobility is our focal agenda.Dagmawit Moges (Ethiopian Transport Minister)
Decarbonizing transport and providing sustainable mobility systems is not an easy task. But the Africa event in the context of GIZ’s Transport and Climate Change Week and funded by the International Climate Initiative of the German government gave also some hope and provided relevant key insights on the necessary transition in Africa. These can be understood as starting points for further discussion.
The current low level of motorisation and urbanisation offers the opportunity to finance infrastructures in the coming years that combine high mobility with low traffic volumes. However, it is the shared responsibility of national governments and investors to coordinate and prioritise financing decisions in the transport sector. Currently China is the largest donor with about 25%.
But the EU – currently only responsible for 6% of investments – is stepping up its efforts and only recently launched the Global Gateway Initiative (watch recording). The plan, presented by Paolo Ciccarelli of the European Commission (DG on International Partnerships), is aiming at enhanced and greener EU-Africa connectivity. This is in line with the African Unions plans to develop corridors across the continent, which is currently supported by the Programme for Infrastructure Development in Africa (PIDA). If that plan is implemented, the share of railways could increase from 0,3% to more than 8% for freight alone (ECA 2022).
Data is an enabler for evidenced-based decision making and planning and therefore important for the development of the African continent. For example, Hindolo Shiaka from Sierra Leone explained how important data is to adapt transport infrastructure to climate change.
A vehicle industry can be developed in a sustainable manner.
In Africa, there are plenty of opportunities for enhancing renewable energy. Wind and sun can also power the transport sector, assuming if African countries focus on electrifying transport, as Asia, Europe or Latin America. This would require that the vehicle industry develops in a sustainable manner.
The workshop Unlocking the Electric Mobility Value Chain in Africa looked at how to unlock the value chain of electric mobility for the continent. Currently, more than 41% of the globally exported used cars are imported to the African market and 95% of car registrations in Africa are used cars (UNEP 2021). This dumping of polluting, second-hand ICE vehicles has to cease and be replaced by a local e-mobility solutions.
Bodawerk International from Uganda, WeTu from Kenya and Cargo Bike Africa are three examples of social enterprises that take up the challenge of building blocks of this local e-mobility value chain in their countries. To ensure long-term sustainability, implementing circular economy principals and thinking of multiple uses and lives of batteries (see our publication here) will be crucial.
One example for a successful policy transformation towards electric vehicles is Cabo Verde. In the session on transport and climate strategies of African countries (watch recording) the country presented its electric mobility action plan. The two other presenting countries Tunisia and Cameroon, both introduced their national urban mobility policies, that represent important pillar of their transport climate ambition.
While more and more people move to cities, this is where people start to motorize. Cities are growing rapidly, and planners now need to take decisions that will influence travel behaviours for decades.
The MobiliseYourCity Partnership looked at local transport authorities (watch recording) with practical examples from Dakar and Abidjan). Such institutions are urgently needed to have a structured mobility system, to implement mobility policies, to manage the market and better rule the system of mobility. Such an institution would complement the efforts of more and more cities that develop Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMPs).
A key issue for SUMPs and African transport authorities would be the question, how to include paratransit operators. Informal transport is not only an important economic sector and delivers most of the transport services in hundreds of African cities, but they provide millions of jobs. Transforming transport in Africa is only possible if mobility needs of different social groups are considered.
In many African cities, 60 to 80% of the population walks or cycles. The challenge on how to maintain such high shares of active mobility is not receiving the attention it deserves. The workshop Streets for Walking and Cycling co-organized by ITDP and UNEP (watch recording) gave not only inspiring examples on bike-sharing in Cairo and city planning in Addis Ababa but UNEP also launched a Pan-African Action Plan for Active Mobility. The initiative intends to fast track the dialogue on active mobility on the continent and improve the infrastructure for walking and cycling.
Finding ways of increasing the welfare on the continent while curbing (transport-related) greenhouse gas emission is the key challenge that is at stake in the coming decades. The Africa Day gave us reason for hope.
Start-ups presented their approaches to sustainable mobility and presented Sustainable Mobility as a Business Case (watch recording). The workshop on Data and Digitization for Better Mobility (watch recording) with Digital Transport 4 Africa showcased that open data is thereby a key enabler to for new business models and entrepreneurs. And finally, the SLOCAT Young Leaders, a group of smart students researching in Africa, inspired participants with a mock debate on the future of public transport (watch recording).
Decarbonizing transport and providing sustainable mobility systems is no small task. This is true in Africa as well. The 11 hours long programme in English and French showed impressively, how the sustainable mobility debate is gaining pace and how it can link mitigation, adaptation and sustainable development. COP27 in Egypt is a chance to move this up on the political agenda.
In further articles you can get more insights from different regions that have discussed various topics during Transport and Climate Change Week 2022.
Mark you calendars: The next Transport and Climate Change Week will take place in September 2023.
The Transport and Climate Change Week was organised for the 5th time and is funded through the International Climate Initiative (IKI) of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Climate Action (BMWK) and the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Nuclear Safety and Consumer Protection (BMUV). It involves partners of GIZ and other implementing organisations and is organised by the Changing Transport Team of GIZ.
In this edition of our ‘stories of change’ series, we feature activities, results and lessons learned from the GIZ TRANSfer project in Peru, China and Indonesia to show how international cooperation can support the net-zero transition in freight transport. The TRANSfer project is one of the few international cooperation projects that started to deal with freight a couple of years ago. It is funded by the International Climate Initiative of the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Climate Action.
Why is a focus on freight transport vital?
Recently, the Council for Decarbonising Transport in Asia ranked freight as the #1 blind spot in their “The Path to Zero” report, while freight is responsible for almost half of transport-related carbon emissions on the continent. And freight hardly shows up in the NDCs, the national climate plans submitted by the countries.
The lack of attention is one of several factors that puts freight transport into the group of ‘hard-to-abate sectors’ where the routes to net-zero are fuzzy and complicated. Freight vehicles make up 42% of global transport CO2 emissions, and their footprint will continue growing under current policies (by 22% until 2050, according to the ITF). In addition, trucks contribute disproportionately to air pollution relative to their global numbers.
While each country’s freight system is specific, we find similar patterns in developed and developing countries: Freight transport is an extremely diverse and fragmented industry. Domestic markets consist of a small circle of big players and thousands of small enterprises that require support for a just transition. Modal fragmentation as well as a lack of data are widespread phenomena.
As freight transport is a predominantly business-oriented activity that is linked to geopolitical issues like trade, commodities and supply chains, its political economy, its drivers and its trends are in many ways different from passenger transport. The profit margins of freight operators are often so thin that investments in new, cleaner technology remain out of reach without supportive policies.
For example, Chinese authorities and TRANSfer worked together on understanding and promoting the fuel-saving potential of truck tyres with low rolling resistance. At the time in 2016, however, we found that it can be difficult to convince companies to invest in such more expensive tyres. To overcome this barrier and to strengthen trust in the savings potential, further standards and regulations for tyre classification and labelling have been recommended. In addition, the analyses of the CO2 benefits of green tyres provided transparency on the contribution that their widespread adoption could yield for China’s climate targets: a reduction of 12-68 MtCO2 per year is possible even under the most conservative scenario.
Starting up green freight – how technical advice delivers change
No matter how important and how sidelined the issue of green freight may seem, we must focus on the issues that really matter to the people and institutions in the partner countries. This is always an imperative for development cooperation.
The main local development concerns in the freight & logistics sector are economic and social: to reduce the domestic costs of logistics and boost competitiveness with more efficient logistics; to facilitate trade through the development of well-connected logistic infrastructures for multiple transport modes; to improve traffic, road safety and local pollution with vehicle regulations; or, to address the skills gap for a modern, efficient logistics system. Any initiative towards green freight needs to deliver clear ‘wins’ for these local concerns.
In Indonesia’s cooperation with TRANSfer, the modernisation of truck fleets emerged as a concern for the Ministry of Transportation. The Ministry chose this area of cooperation due to its linkages with its priority agenda of banning ‘ODOL’ (Overdimensioning and overloading of trucks) by 2023 to improve safety on Indonesian highways and toll roads. The hypothesis has been that the government’s push for a stricter enforcement of truck loading regulations could accelerate the replacement rate of truck fleets. With the right policies and incentives in place, this creates a window of opportunity to deploy a more environment friendly vehicle fleet.
Another area of cooperation in Indonesia has been the shift of freight flows on Java from road to rail. The topic aligns well with the government’s targets for strengthening the modal share of rail, with its logistic cost reduction agenda and with its planned investments in rail connections for several ports in the country. A technical study by TRANSfer identified a long list of potential policies and investments with which Indonesia could overcome the many barriers that prohibit rail freight from gaining significance. Several recommendations have already been implemented (e.g. a simplified registration process for multimodal transport operators) or have been included in official plans (e.g. freight mode shift is an action item in the NDC roadmap).
In Peru, the Ministry of Transportation and TRANSfer joined forces to tackle the skills gap of truck drivers on safe and fuel-efficient driving techniques. The obvious answer has been driver training, for which manuals and evaluation tools have been developed and tested with truck drivers. A national ecodriving program could generate 4 MtC02e of GHG emissions savings by 2030. Thus, ecodriving has been included in Peru’s transport NDC as a mitigation measure.
As driving performance and better freight vehicles are inextricably linked components of efficient road transport services, another key result of TRANSfer’s cooperation in Peru has been a scrappage programme for old, heavily polluting trucks. Around 16.8 million euros in public spending have been approved in 2020 to start the scrappage program.
Recognising that professional capacity of drivers is one of the key factors for fuel efficiency and safety, truck ecodriving is also the focus of one of our six climate action toolkits.
Nothing works without effective stakeholder dialogues
GIZ builds relationships with the communities and representative groups who have a stake in the local freight system. We continuously engage government, industry, local authorities and wider stakeholders in conversations about the scope of a more coordinated approach towards green freight action and how it could be delivered in practice. Without stakeholder support, no implementation.
The freight transport sector is often a somewhat ‘homeless’ issue as it lacks clear governmental ownership and coordination among parts of the government. In Peru, TRANSfer therefore acted as a faciltiator between government departments to enable a joint agenda. As part of the ecodriving and scrappage programme, the Ministry of Transport and Communication is collaborating with the Ministries for Environment, for Energy and for Finance.
Private sector engagement has special importance because the freight sector is predominantly a corporate world. To identify barriers and solutions, our team in Indonesia ran comprehensive surveys, multiple meetings and a series of workshops with industry associations, companies and state-owned enterprises. Aside from gathering information, these dialogues have been essential for establishing trustful relationships among public and private stakeholders, for addressing concerns and for ensuring a transparent process.
What comes next?
The latest IPCC report (AR6 WG III) acknowledges that systemic transformations in the freight sector are needed to limit global heating. These transformations require public-private dialogue, positive stakeholder relations, agents of change and strong political will that holds against opposition and that is sensitive to the livelihoods of the sector’s workforce. The opportunities are plenty, but so are the barriers.
The international discourse on the decarbonisation of freight and logistics advances at a good pace. There are a growing number of events, knowledge products, governmental strategies, corporate climate targets, as well as new opportunities of vehicle electrification and PtX. The corona crises may have catalysed this trend.
International cooperation has a vital role to play in making green freight a global agenda and in turning it from opportunity to activity. While TRANSfer ends in 2022, other IKI- and BMZ-funded GIZ projects continue to tackle local barriers and to make change work in the freight and logistics sector, e.g. in India or in Mexico. As Germany is a global logistics champion, its practices, policies and innovations are very much in demand our partner countries. In the years to come, there is a good chance for enhancing international cooperation on freight.